ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Shape and geometrical parameter effects of a bimorph piezoelectric beam on energy harvesting performance
In this paper, the shape influence of piezoelectric beams including triangle, trapezoid, rectangle, inverted trapezoid, convex parabola, concave parabola, and comb-shaped (a combination of two triangular beams with a connector of 4 mm length) are addressed and analyzed by FEM. The analysis is performed for a bimorph piezoelectric beam. The analyzed parameters include the beam length, thickness and width of the piezoelectric layer. The study is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software for all seven shapes. The results show that due to the mechanical properties of the beams, the natural frequency of the triangular beam is more for all considered parameters. In addition, as the width of the beam end increases, the natural frequency reduces, too. Since natural frequency is inversely related to electric power, the inverted trapezoidal beam has the highest electric power and the triangular beam has the lowest one.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12781_30acc72785f2e70a00adc6f673ef0353.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
92
102
10.22055/jacm.2017.21610.1111
Piezoelectric beam
Bimorph
Geometry
Finite element
Amir Ashkan
Sarafraz
amirashkansarafraz@yahoo.com
true
1
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Iran
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Iran
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Iran
AUTHOR
Seyed Alireza
Seyed Roknizadeh
ali_roknizadeh@yahoo.com
true
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Ahvaz, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Mitcheson, P. D., Green, T. C., Yeatman, E. M., & Holmes, A.S., Architectures for vibration-driven micro-power generators, Journal of Micro-Electromechanical Systems, 13, 429-440, 2004.
1
[2] Miyazaki, M., Tanaka, H., Ono, G., Nagano, T., Ohkubo, N., Kawahara, T., & Yano, K., Electric-energy generation using variable-capacitive resonator for power-free LSI: Efficiency analysis and fundamental experiment, Low Power Electronics and Design, 2003. ISLPED '03. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on, Seoul: South Korea, 193-198, 2003.
2
[3] Torah, R. N., Beeby, S. P., Tudor, M. J., O’Donnell, T., & Roy, S., Development of a cantilever beam generator employing vibration energy harvesting, The 6th Int. Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS 2006), United States, 181-184, 2006.
3
[4] Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., & Rabaey, J., A study of low level vibrations as a power source for wireless sensor nodes, Computer Communications, 26, 1131-1144, 2003
4
[5] Zhu, D., Beeby, S., Tudor, J., White, N., & Harris, N., Improving output power of piezoelectric energy harvesters using multilayer structures, Procedia Engineering, 25, 199-202, 2011.
5
[6] Liu, Z., Lia, L., Modeling of energy harvesting device with segmented piezoelectric layer. Elsevier, 47, 470- 473, 2012.
6
[7] Kumar, A., Sharma, A., Kumar, R., Vaish, R., & Vishal, S. Ch., Finite element analysis of vibration energy harvesting using lead-free piezoelectric materials: A comparative study, Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 2(2), 138-143, 2014.
7
[8] Reddy, A. R., Umapathy, M. M., Ezhilarasi, D., & Uma, G., Cantilever beam with trapezoidal cavity for improved energy harvesting, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 16(8), 1875-1881, 2014.
8
[9] Mateu, L., Moll, F., Optimum piezoelectric bending beam structure for energy harvesting using shoe inserts, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 16(10), 835-845, 2005.
9
[10] Lu, F., Lee, H.P., Lim, S.P., Modelling and analysis of micro piezoelectric power generators for micro-electromechanical systems applications, Smart Materials and Structures, 13(1), 57-63, 2004.
10
[11] IEEE standard on piezoelectricity. New York, 1987.
11
[12] Williams C. B., & Yates R. B., Analysis of a micro-electric generator for microsystems, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 52(3), 8-11, 1996.
12
[13] Vierck, R. K., Vibration analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Crowell Company, 1978.
13
[14] Momeni, M., Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters to Improve Electrical Output Power Using Finite Element Method , 3rd International Engineering materials & Metallurgy conference, 2014.
14
[15] Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., A piezoelectric vibration based generator for wireless electronics, Smart Materials and Structures, 13(5), 1131-1142, 2004.
15
[16] Kianpour, A, Jahani, K, The effect of geometrical parameters on performance of piezoelectric harvesters under basic harmonic vibrations using finite element method, Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 2(2), 138-143, 2014.
16
[17] Pan, C.T., Liu, Z. H., Chen, Y. C., & Liu, C. F., Design and fabrication of Flexible piezo-microgenerator by depositing ZnO thin films on PET substrates, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 159(1), 96-104, 2010.
17
[18] Sharpes, N., Abdelkefi, A., & Priya, Sh., Two-dimensional concentrated stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, Applied Physics Letters, 107(9), 093901, 2015.
18
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Perturbation Solutions for the Study of MHD Blood as a Third Grade Nanofluid Transporting Gold Nanoparticles through a Porous Channel
In this paper, the flow, thermal and concentration analyses of blood as a third grade with gold as nanoparticles through a porous channel are carried out using regular perturbation method. The analysis are carried out using Vogel’s model of temperature-dependent viscosity. The developed models were used to investigate the effects of the nano particles on the concentration, temperature and velocity of the fluid as it flows through the porous medium of a hollow channel in the presence of magnetic field. Also, the effects of fluid parameters such as Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscous dissipation, non-Newtonian, porosity, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), diffusion constant at various values on the fluid were established. The results generated in this work were found to be in good agreement with the results found in litereture.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12889_f1dc012f0e79090505b1c84967bf3688.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
103
113
10.22055/jacm.2017.12889
Perturbation solutions
Magnetohydrodynamics
Blood
Third grade
Nanofluid
Akin
Akinshilo
gsobamowo@unilag.edu.ng
true
1
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
AUTHOR
Gbeminiyi
Sobamowo
mikegbeminiyi@gmail.com
true
2
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Xu, H., Liao, S. J. “Series solutions of unsteady magneto hydrodynamic flows of Non-Newtonian fluids caused by impulsive stretching plates,” Journal of Non Newtonian fluid mechanics, 147, pp. 46-55, 2005.
1
[2] Kumar, P. K., Paul, W., Sharma, C. P. “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Zinigiberofficinaleextract,” Process Biochemistry, 46, pp. 2007-2013, 2011.
2
[3] Ogulu, A., Amos, E. “Modeling pulsatile blood flow within a homogeneous porous bed in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and time dependent suction,” International communication of Heat Mass Transfer, 34, pp.989-995, 2007.
3
[4] Ellahi, R., Zeeshan, A. Vafai, K., Rahman, H. U. “Series solutions for magneto hydrodynamic flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid and heat transfer in coaxial porous cylinder with slip condition,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineering Part N, 225, pp.123-132, 2011.
4
[5] Baoku, I. G., Olajuwon, B. I., A.O. Mustapha, “Heat and mass transfer on a MHD third grade fluid with partial slip flow past an infinite vertical insulated porous plate in a porous medium”, International Journal Heat Fluid Flow, 40, pp.81-88, 2013.
5
[6] Ellahi, R., “The effect of MHD and temperature dependent viscosity on the flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid in a pipe, analytical solutions,” Applied Mathematical model, 37, pp.1451-1467, 2013.
6
[7] Sheikholeslami, M. Hatamiand, M. Ganji, D. D. “Analytical investigation of MHD nanofluid in a semi porous channel, Powder Technology, 246, pp. 327-336, 2013.
7
[8] Hatami, M., Hatami J., Ganji, D. D. “Computer simulation of MHD blood conveying gold nanoparticles as a third grade non-Newtonian nanofluid in a hollow porous vessel,” Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 113, pp. 632-641, 2014.
8
[9] Ogunmola, B. Y., Akinshilo, A. T., Sobamowo, M. G. “Perturbation solutions for Hagen-Poiseuille flow and heat transfer of third grade fluid with temperature-dependent viscosities and internal heat generation,” International Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2016, 8915745, 2016.
9
[10] Fosdick, R. L., Rajagopal, K.R. “Thermodynamics and stability of fluids of third grade,” Procter Society London, Vol.339, pp.351-377, 1980.
10
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Analytical Investigations of the Effects of Tool Pin Profile and Process Parameters on the Peak Temperature in Friction Stir Welding
In this work, effects of different tool pin profiles of flat and tapered shoulder geometries on the peak temperature in friction stir welding are investigated analytically. The developed models used for the analytical investigations considered the welding process as a combination or mixture of the pure sliding and the pure sticking. From the results, the amount of heat generation and the peak temperature are directly proportional to the number of edges in the pin profiles in such a way that the heat generated and peak temperature in the profiles increases from the triangular pin profile to hexagonal pin profile. Also, the rate of heat generation and the peak temperature in flat shoulder are greater than in tapered/conical shoulder. The results in this work are validated with experimental and the past theoretical results and good agreements are achieved.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12652_e76db895c3d5d8755f1d1bd3caee275f.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
114
124
10.22055/jacm.2017.21276.1097
Frictional stir welding
Peak temperature
Different tool pin Profiles
Analytical investigations
M
Waheed
lawrence@unilag.edu.ng
true
1
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
AUTHOR
Lawrence
Jayesimi
ljayesimi@unilag.edu.ng
true
2
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
LEAD_AUTHOR
S. O.
Ismail
true
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
AUTHOR
O
Dairo
udairo@yahoo.co.uk
true
4
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
AUTHOR
[1] Chao, Y. J., Qi, X. Tang, W. Heat transfer in friction stir welding: experimental and numerical studies, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125, 138–145, 2003.
1
[2] Frigaard, O., Grong, O., Midling, O. T. A process model for friction stir welding of age hardening aluminium alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 32, 1189–1200, 2001.
2
[3] Russell, M. J., Shercliff, H. R., 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Thousand Oaks, California, USA,1999.
3
[4] Gadakh, V. S., Kumar, A., Patil, J.V. Analytical Modeling of the Friction Stir Welding Process using Different Pin Profiles. Welding Research, 94(4), 115-124, 2015.
4
[5] Colegrove, P.A., Shercliff, H.R., Zettler, R. A model for predicting the heat generation and temperature in friction stir welding from the material properties. Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 12, 284–297, 2007.
5
[6] Raouche, E., Driss, Z., Guidara, M., Khalfallah, F. Effects of the tool geometries on the thermal analysis of the friction stir welding. International Journal of Mechanics and Applications, 6(1), 1-7, 2016.
6
[7] Emamikhah, A. Abbasi, A., Lirabi, I., Feghhi, Amir, Atefat, A. The role of tool pin profile and temperature on friction stir welding of high zinc brass. Advanced Material Research, 685, 264-268, 2013.
7
[8] Ramanjaneyulu, K., Reddy, M., Rao, V., Markandeya, R. Structure-Property Correlation of AA2014 Friction Stir Welds: Role of Tool Pin Profile. JMEPEG, 22, 2224-2240, 2013.
8
[9] Juárez, J.C.V., Almaraz, G.M.D, Hernández, R.G., López, J. J. V. Effects of Modified Pin Profile and Process Paramters on the Friction Stir Welding of Aluiminium Alloy 6061-T6. Advances in Material Science and Engineering, Vol 2016, 7567940, 9pages.
9
[10] Yatapu, Y. R., Reddy, B. R., Ramaraju, R. V., Ku, M. F. B. C., Ibrahim, A. B. Prediction of Temeperatures during Friction Stir Welding of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy using Ayperworks. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(18), 11003-11008, 2016
10
[11] Patil, M. S., Msatud, S. A. Simulation and Calculation of Peak Temperature in Friction Stir Welding Process of Aluminium Plates. International Journal of Science Technology and Enginering, 2(1), 6-12, 2015.
11
[12] Patel, J. B., Patil, H. S. Simulation of Peak Temperature and Flow Stress during FSW of Aluminium Alloy AA6061 for various Tool Pin Profiles. International Journal of Material Science and Engineering, 2(1), 67-71, 2014.
12
[13] Manvatur, V., De, A., Svensson, L-E, T. DebRoy. Cooling Rates and Peak Temperatures during Friction Stir Welding of High-Carbon Steel. Scripta Materialia, 94, 36-39, 2015.
13
[14] Hamilton, C., Dymek, S., Sommers, A. A Thermal Model of Friction Stir Welding in Aluminium Alloys. Int. Journal of Machine Tools Manuf., 48, 1120-1130, 2008.
14
[15] Essa, A. R. S., Ahmed, M. M. Z., Mohamed, A. Y. A., El-Nikhaily, A. E. An Analytical Model of Heat Generation for Eccentric Cylindrical Pin in Friction Stir Welding. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 5(3), 234-240, 2016.
15
[16] Waheed, M.A., Jayesimi, L.O., Ismail, S.O., Dairo, O.U. Modeling of Heat Generations for Different Tool Profiles in Friction Stir Welding: Study of Tool Geometry and Contact Conditions. Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics. 3(1), 37-59, 2017.
16
[17] Arora, A., Nandan, R., Reynolds, A.P., Debroy, T. Torque, power requirement and stir zone geometry in friction stir welding through modeling and experiments. Scripta Mater, 60, 13–16, 2009.
17
[18] El-Tayeb, N.S.M., Low, K.O., Brevern, P.V. On the surface and tribological characteristics of burnished cylindrical Al-6061. Tribol. Int., 42, 320–326, 2009.
18
[19] Devaraju, A., Kumar, A., Kotiveerachari, B. Influence of addition of Grp/Al2O3p with SiCp on wear properties of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 hybrid composites via friction stir processing. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 23, 1275–1280, 2013.
19
[20] Sheppard, T., Wright, D. Determination of flow stress. Part 1 constitutive equation for aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures, Met. Technol., 6, 215–223, 1979.
20
[21] Sheppard, T., Jackson, A. Constitutive equations for use in prediction of flow stress during extrusion of aluminium alloys, Materials Science and Technology, 13(3), 203–209, 1997.
21
[22] Uyyuru, R.K., Kallas, S.V. Numerical analysis of friction stirs welding process. J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 15, 505–18, 2006.
22
[23] Colegrove, P.A., Shercliff, H.R. CFD Modelling of the friction stir welding of thick Plate 7449 aluminium alloy. Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 11 (4), 429–441, 2006.
23
[24] Wang, H., Colegrove, P.A., Dos Santos, J.F. Numerical investigation of the tool contact condition during friction stir welding of aerospace aluminium alloy. Comput Mater Sci., 7, 101–108, 2013.
24
[25] Su, H., Wu, C., Chen, M. Analysis of material flow and heat transfer in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. China Weld (Engl Ed), 22, 6–10, 2013.
25
[26] Sobamowo, M. G. New models for the prediction of temperature-strain dependent flow stress during machining and fabrication of material. Report on Improved models for flow stress predictions. Unpublished Work, 2016.
26
[27] Schmidt, H., Hattel, J., Wert, J. An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding. Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 12, 143–157, 2004.
27
[28] Khandkar, M. Z. H., Khan, J. A., Reynolds, A. P. Prediction to temperature distribution and thermal history during friction stir welding: Input torque based model. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 8, 165–174, 2003.
28
[29] Qian, J. Li, J. Sun, F., Xiong, J. Zhang, F., Lin, X. An analytical model to optimize rotation speed and travel speed of friction stir welding for defect-free joints. Scriptia Materialia, 68, 175-178, 2013.
29
[30] Roy, G. G., Nandan, R. and DebRoy, T. Dimensionless correlation to estimate peak temperature during friction stir welding. Sci Technol Weld Join, 11, 606–608, 2006.
30
[31] Lombard, H., Hattingh, D. G., Steuwer, A. and James, M. N. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds. Mater Sci Eng A. 501(1-2), 119-124, 2009.
31
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Electromechanical Performance of NEMS Actuator Fabricated from Nanowire under quantum vacuum fluctuations using GDQ and MVIM
The Casimir attraction can significantly interfere the physical response of nanoactuators. The intensity of the Casimir force depends on the geometries of interacting bodies. The present paper is dedicated to model the influence of the Casimir attraction on the electrostatic stability of nanoactuators made of cylindrical conductive nanowire/nanotube. An asymptotic solution, based on path-integral approach, is employed to consider the Casimir force. The continuum theory is employed to derive the constitutive equation of the actuator. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by three different approaches. Various perspectives of the issue including comparison with the van der Waals (vdW) force regime, the variation of instability parameters and effect of geometry are addressed.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12713_a9fc31f458a76f206529c27b42d88954.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
125
134
10.22055/jacm.2017.21581.1109
Nanowire/Nanotube fabricated actuator
Casimir attraction
Continuum model
Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ)
Modified Variation Iteration Method (MVIM)
Fateme
Abadian
abadian.naeini@yahoo.com
true
1
Department of Mathematics, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
Rahman
Soroush
eng.soroush322@yahoo.com
true
2
Department of Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Department of Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Department of Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
AUTHOR
Alireza
Yekrangi
alireza_yekrangi@gmail.com
true
3
Department of Engineering, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran
Department of Engineering, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran
Department of Engineering, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran
AUTHOR
[1] Ghalambaz, M., Ghalambaz, M., Edalatifar, M., "Buckling Analysis of Cantilever Nanoactuators Immersed in an Electrolyte: A Close Form Solution Using Duan-Rach Modified Adomian Decomposition Method", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 1(4), pp. 207-219, 2015.
1
[2] Mokhtari, J., Farrokhabadi, A., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical modeling of the effect of Casimir attraction on the electrostatic instability of nanowire-fabricated actuators”, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 68, pp. 149-158, 2015.
2
[3] Farrokhabadi, A., Mokhtari, J., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Modeling the influence of the Casimir force on the pull-in instability of nanowire-fabricated nanotweezers”, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 29, 2, pp. 1450245, 2015.
3
[4] Farrokhabadi, A., Mokhtari, J., Koochi, A., and Abadyan, M., “A theoretical model for investigating the effect of vacuum fluctuations on the electromechanical stability of nanotweezers”, Indian Journal of Physics, 89, 6, pp. 599-609, 2015.
4
[5] Keivani, M., Gheisari, R., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., Mokhtari, J., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Effect of the centrifugal force on the electromechanical instability of U-shaped and double-sided sensors made of cylindrical nanowires”, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 38, 7, pp. 2129-2148, 2016.
5
[6] Keivani, M., Kanani, A., Mardaneh, M. R., Mokhtari, J., Abadyan, N., and Abadyan, M., “Influence of Accelerating Force on the Electromechanical Instability of Paddle-Type and Double-Sided Sensors Made of Nanowires”, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 8, 1,pp. 1650011, 2016.
6
[7] Keivani, M., Khorsandi, J., Mokhtari, J., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., and Abadyan, M., “Pull-in instability of paddle-type and double-sided NEMS sensors under the accelerating force”, Acta Astronautica, 119, pp.196-206, 2016.
7
[8] Farjam, N., "Pull-in behavior of a bio-mass sensor based on an electrostatically actuated cantilevered CNT with consideration of rippling effect", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 1(4), pp. 229-239, 2015.
8
[9] Keivani, M., Mokhtari, J., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “A size-dependent model for instability analysis of paddle-type and double-sided NEMS measurement sensors in the presence of centrifugal force”, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, just-accepted, 2016.
9
[10] Keshtegar, B., Ghaderi, A., El-Shafie, A., "Reliability analysis of nanocomposite beams-reinforced by CNTs under buckling forces using the conjugate HL-RF", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2(4), pp. 200-207, 2016.
10
[11] Keivani, M., Abadian, N., Koochi, A., Mokhtari, J., and Abadyan, M., “A 2-DOF microstructure-dependent model for the coupled torsion/bending instability of rotational nanoscanner”, Applied Physics A, 122, 10, pp. 927, 2016.
11
[12] Sedighi, H. M., Keivani, M., and Abadyan, M., “Modified continuum model for stability analysis of asymmetric FGM double-sided NEMS: corrections due to finite conductivity, surface energy and nonlocal effect”, Composites Part B: Engineering,83, pp. 117-133, 2015.
12
[13] Keivani, M., Mokhtari, J., Abadian, N., Abbasi, M., Koochi, A., and Abadyan, M., “Analysis of U-shaped NEMS in the Presence of Electrostatic, Casimir, and Centrifugal Forces Using Consistent Couple Stress Theory”, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, just-accepted, pp. 1-12, 2017.
13
[14] Sedighi, H. M., Daneshmand, F., and Abadyan, M., “Modified model for instability analysis of symmetric FGM double-sided nano-bridge: corrections due to surface layer, finite conductivity and size effect”, Composite Structures,132, pp. 545-557, 2015.
14
[15] Vakili Tahami, F., Biglari, H., Raminnea, M., "Optimum design of FGX-CNT-reinforced Reddy pipes conveying fluid subjected to moving load", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2(4), pp. 243-253, 2016.
15
[16] Mohsen-Nia, M., Abadian, F., Abadian, N., Dehkordi, K. M., Keivani, M., and Abadyan, M., “Analysis of cantilever NEMS in centrifugal-fluidic systems”, International Journal of Modern Physics B,30, 22, pp. 1650148, 2016.
16
[17] Koochi, A., Kazemi, A.S., Tadi Beni, Y., Yekrangi, A. and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical study of the effect of Casimir attraction on the pull-in behavior of beam-type NEMS using modified Adomian method”, Physica E., 43, 2, pp. 625-632, 2010.
17
[18] Lin, W. H., and Zhao, Y. P., “Casimir effect on the pull-in parameters of nanometer switches”, Microsystem Technologies, 11, pp. 80-85. 2005.
18
[19] Lin, W. H., and Zhao, Y. P., “Nonlinear behavior for nanoscales electrostatic actuators with Casimir force”, Chaos Solitons Fractals, 23, pp. 1777-1785, 2005,
19
[20] Farrokhabadi, A., Abadian, N., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical modeling of the Casimir force-induced instability in freestanding nanowires with circular cross-section”, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 63, pp. 67-80, 2014.
20
[21] Farrokhabadi, A., Abadian, N., Kanjouri, F., and Abadyan, M., “Casimir force-induced instability in freestanding nanotweezers and nanoactuators made of cylindrical nanowires”, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 28, 19, pp. 1450129, 2014.
21
[22] Bordag, M., “The Casimir effect for a sphere and a cylinder in front of plane and corrections to the proximity force theorem”,Physical Review D, 73, pp. 125018,2006,
22
[23] Emig, T., Jaffe, R.L., Kardar, M. and Scardicchio, A., “Casimir Interaction between a Plate and a Cylinder”, Physical review letters, 96, pp. 080403, 2006,
23
[24] Hayt, W.H., Engineering Electromagnetics. 4th edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981.
24
[25] Koochi, A., Farrokhabadi, A., and Abadyan, M., “Modeling the size dependent instability of NEMS sensor/actuator made of nano-wire with circular cross-section”, Microsystem Technologies, 21, 2, pp. 355-364, 2015.
25
[26] Shu, C.H., Differential quadrature and its application in engineering, Springer, London, 1999.
26
[27] Israelachvili, J.N., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Academic Press, London, 1992.
27
[28] Ke, C. H., Pugno, N., Peng, B., and Espinosa, H. D., “Experiments and modeling of carbon nanotube-based NEMS devices”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 53, 6, pp. 1314-1333, 2005.
28
[29] Kashyap, K.T., Patil, R.G. and Bull, R.G., “on Young’s modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes”, Bulletin of Materials Science, 31, 2, pp. 185-187, 2008.
29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Size Effect Impact on the Mechanical Behavior of an Electrically Actuated Polysilicon Nanobeam based NEMS Resonator
In this paper, the dynamic response of resonating nano-beams is investigated using a strain gradient elasticity theory. A nonlinear model is obtained based on the Galerkin decomposition method to find the dynamic response of the investigated beam around its statically deflected position. The mid-plane stretching, axial residual stress and nonlinear interaction due to the electrostatic force on the deflected beam are included in the proposed nonlinear beam model. Comparing the beam natural frequency using strain gradient theory with experimental data shows an excellent agreement among both approaches. The normalized natural frequency is shown to be increasing nonlinearly with the decrease of the applied DC voltage as well as beam thickness. The results also reveal that increasing the tension axial stress increases the natural frequency; however its influence decreases when decreasing the beam thickness. To investigate the effect of AC actuation voltage on the beam resonant frequency, a Lindstedt-Poincare based perturbation method is utilized and validated by comparison with experimental data. The results show that increasing the AC actuation voltage makes the beam stiffer by increasing its resonant frequency.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12741_81b6461684951f9bea3832deffb05955.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
135
143
10.22055/jacm.2017.21538.1106
NEMS
Nano-resonator
Strain gradient elasticity theory
Size effect
Ehsan
Maani Miandoab
e.maani@ut.ac.ir
true
1
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Hossein
Nejat Pishkenari
nejat@sharif.edu
true
2
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Aghil
Yousefi-Koma
aykoma@ut.ac.ir
true
3
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
AUTHOR
Farid
Tajaddodianfar
farid_tajaddodianfar@gmail.com
true
4
Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas
75080-3021, USA
Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas
75080-3021, USA
Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas
75080-3021, USA
AUTHOR
Hassen
Ouakad
houakad@kfupm.edu.sa
true
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 31261, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 31261, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 31261, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
LEAD_AUTHOR
1. Braghin, F., et al., Nonlinear dynamics of vibrating MEMS. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2007. 134(1): p. 98-108.
1
2. Mestrom, R., et al., Modelling the dynamics of a MEMS resonator: Simulations and experiments. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2008. 142(1): p. 306-315.
2
3. Fu, Y., J. Zhang, and L. Wan, Application of the energy balance method to a nonlinear oscillator arising in the microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Current Applied Physics, 2011. 11(3): p. 482-485.
3
4. Chaterjee, S. and G. Pohit, Dynamics of nonlinearly damped microcantilevers under electrostatic excitation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2013. 227(3): p. 630-646.
4
5. Abbas, I.A., Exact Solution of Thermoelastic Damping and Frequency Shifts in a Nano-Beam Resonator. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2014: p. 1450082.
5
6. Abdel-Rahman, E.M., M.I. Younis, and A.H. Nayfeh, Characterization of the mechanical behavior of an electrically actuated microbeam. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2002. 12(6): p. 759.
6
7. Kuang, J.-H. and C.-J. Chen, Dynamic characteristics of shaped micro-actuators solved using the differential quadrature method. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2004. 14(4): p. 647.
7
8. Moghimi Zand, M. and M. Ahmadian, Characterization of coupled-domain multi-layer microplates in pull-in phenomenon, vibrations and dynamics. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2007. 49(11): p. 1226-1237.
8
9. Moghimi Zand, M. and M. Ahmadian, Vibrational analysis of electrostatically actuated microstructures considering nonlinear effects. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 2009. 14: p. 1664-1678.
9
10. Younis, M. and A. Nayfeh, A study of the nonlinear response of a resonant microbeam to an electric actuation. Nonlinear Dynamics, 2003. 31(1): p. 91-117.
10
11. Moghimi Zand, M. and M.T. Ahmadian, Application of homotopy analysis method in studying dynamic pull-in instability of microsystems. Mechanics Research Communications, 2009. 36(7): p. 851-858.
11
12. Namazu, T., Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, 2000. 9(4): p. 450-459.
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13. Stölken, J. and A. Evans, A microbend test method for measuring the plasticity length scale. Acta Materialia, 1998. 46(14): p. 5109-5115.
13
14. Fu, Y., J. Zhang, and Y. Jiang, Influences of the surface energies on the nonlinear static and dynamic behaviors of nanobeams. Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 2010. 42(9): p. 2268-2273.
14
15. Kong, S., et al., The size-dependent natural frequency of Bernoulli–Euler micro-beams. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2008. 46(5): p. 427-437.
15
16. Kong, S., et al., Static and dynamic analysis of micro beams based on strain gradient elasticity theory. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2009. 47(4): p. 487-498.
16
17. Lim, C., Is a nanorod (or nanotube) with a lower Young’s modulus stiffer? Is not Young’s modulus a stiffness indicator? SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2010. 53(4): p. 712-724.
17
18. Reddy, J., Nonlocal nonlinear formulations for bending of classical and shear deformation theories of beams and plates. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2010. 48(11): p. 1507-1518.
18
19. Akgöz, B. and Ö. Civalek, Strain gradient elasticity and modified couple stress models for buckling analysis of axially loaded micro-scaled beams. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2011. 49(11): p. 1268-1280.
19
20. Abbasi, M. and A.K. Mohammadi, Study of the sensitivity and resonant frequency of the flexural modes of an atomic force microscopy microcantilever modeled by strain gradient elasticity theory. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2013: p. 0954406213507918.
20
21. Rahaeifard, M., M.T. Ahmadian, and K. Firoozbakhsh, Size-dependent dynamic behavior of microcantilevers under suddenly applied DC voltage. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2013: p. 0954406213490376.
21
22. Gheshlaghi, B. and S.M. Hasheminejad, Vibration analysis of piezoelectric nanowires with surface and small scale effects. Current Applied Physics, 2012. 12(4): p. 1096-1099.
22
23. Gholami, R., et al., Axial buckling and dynamic stability of functionally graded microshells based on the modified couple stress theory. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2015. 15(04): p. 1450070.
23
24. Akgöz, B. and Ö. Civalek, Comment on “Static and dynamic analysis of micro beams based on strain gradient elasticity theory” by S. Kong, S. Zhou, Z. Nie, and K. Wang,(International Journal of Engineering Science, 47, 487–498, 2009). International Journal of Engineering Science, 2012. 50(1): p. 279-281.
24
25. Miandoab, E.M., H.N. Pishkenari, and A. Yousefi-Koma, Dynamic analysis of electrostatically actuated nanobeam based on strain gradient theory. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2015. 15(04): p. 1450059.
25
26. Miandoab, E.M., A. Yousefi-Koma, and H.N. Pishkenari, Poly silicon nanobeam model based on strain gradient theory. Mechanics Research Communications, 2014. 62: p. 83-88.
26
27. Tilmans, H.A. and R. Legtenberg, Electrostatically driven vacuum-encapsulated polysilicon resonators: Part II. Theory and performance. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 1994. 45(1): p. 67-84.
27
28. Nayfeh, A.H., Introduction to perturbation techniques2011: Wiley-VCH.
28
29. Nayfeh, A.H. and D.T. Mook, Nonlinear oscillations2008: Wiley-VCH.
29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Performance Analysis of Segmentation of Hyperspectral Images Based on Color Image Segmentation
Image segmentation is a fundamental approach in the field of image processing and based on user’s application .This paper propose an original and simple segmentation strategy based on the EM approach that resolves many informatics problems about hyperspectral images which are observed by airborne sensors. In a first step, to simplify the input color textured image into a color image without texture. The final segmentation is simply achieved by a spatially color segmentation using feature vector with the set of color values contained around the pixel to be classified with some mathematical equations. The spatial constraint allows taking into account the inherent spatial relationships of any image and its color. This approach provides effective PSNR for the segmented image. These results have the better performance as the segmented images are compared with Watershed & Region Growing Algorithm and provide effective segmentation for the Spectral Images & Medical Images.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12639_da89f74e153cb0bf82754bc421b334cd.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
144
149
10.22055/jacm.2017.12639
Segmentation
Hyperspectral
EM
Praveen
Agarwal
praveenagarwal@poornima.org
true
1
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
LEAD_AUTHOR
Shilpi
Jain
shilpi.jain@poornima.org
true
2
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
AUTHOR
Ruchika
Garg
ruchika09@rediffmail.com
true
3
MIT, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
MIT, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
MIT, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
AUTHOR
[1] Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education 2nd Edition Asia, ISBN: 0-201-18075-8, 2002.
1
[2] Mohan, A., Sapiro, G., Bosch, E., Spatially Coherent Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Segmentation of Hyperspectral Images, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 2, 206-210, 2007.
2
[3] Özlem, N., Subakan, B., Vemuri C., A Quaternion Framework for Color Image Smoothing and Segmentation, Int. J. Comput. Vis., Vol. 91, 233-250, 2011, DOI 10.1007/s11263-010-0388-9.
3
[4] Mahjoub, M.A., Kalti, K., Image segmentation by adaptive distance based on EM algorithm, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Special Issue, 19-25, 2011.
4
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Thermodynamic Study of Water Activity of Single Strong Electrolytes
Today, due to the natural decline of oil exploitation, the use of methods of oil recovery, has made significant progress. However, these methods are accompanied by accumulation and deposition of mineral deposits in oil field installations. In the present study, aqueous solutions, strontium sulfate, barium sulfate, manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate are studied, in terms of EUNIQUAC model and genetic algorithms. Based on the findings of this article, as temperature increases, in order to increase the solubility of the system, the ionic strength decreases; but with increasing pressure, the solubility of barium sulfate increases. Meanwhile, in this article, to evaluate water activity, aqueous solutions of manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate is studied.
http://jacm.scu.ac.ir/article_12425_ef93df4be636b11b5031f3e05f1a3a94.pdf
2017-06-01T11:23:20
2018-08-22T11:23:20
150
157
10.22055/jacm.2017.12425
Mineral Ions
Ionic Strength
Water Activity
EUNIQUAC Model
Seyed Hossein
Hashemi
hosseinhashmei@gmail.com
true
1
Graduate Msc Chemical Engineering, The nuclear martyrs Technologies Incubator ,Shiraz,Iran
Graduate Msc Chemical Engineering, The nuclear martyrs Technologies Incubator ,Shiraz,Iran
Graduate Msc Chemical Engineering, The nuclear martyrs Technologies Incubator ,Shiraz,Iran
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] Hashemi, S. H. Mirzayi, B., Mousavib D.A., Din Mohammed, M.Study the process of the formation of mineral deposits on the surface and subsurface facilities oil fields, The first international conference on oil, gas and petrochemical sustainable development approach (communication with industry University), Tehran, 1393.
1
[2] Moghadasi, J., Jamialahmadi, M., Muller-Steinhagen, H., Sharif, A. Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir and Production Equipment during Water Injection (Kinetics of CaCO4 and CaCO3 Crystal Growth and Effect on Formation Damage), The SPE European Formation Damage Conference SPE 82233, 1-12. 2003.
2
[3] Bedrikovestsky, P., Lopes, R., Rosario, F., Bezerra, M., Lima,, E. Oilfield Scaling Part I: mathematical and Laboratory Modeling, Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, West India, SPE 81127, 2003.
3
[4] Ahmed, J. Laboratory Study on Precipitation of Calcium Sulphate in Berea Sand Stone Cores, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, M.E., 2004.
4
[5] Fan, C., Kan, A., Zhang, P. Quantitative Evaluation of Calcium Sulfate, SPE J., 17(2), 379-392, 2012.
5
[6] Haghtalab, A., KamaliM, J., Shahrabadi, A. Prediction mineral scale formation in oil reservoirs during water injection, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 373, 43–54, 2014.
6
[7] Safari, H., Shokrollahi, A., Moslemizadeh, A., Jamialahmadi, M., Ghazanfari, M.H. Predicting the solubility of SrSO4in Na–Ca–Mg–Sr–Cl–SO4–H2Osystem at elevated temperatures and pressure, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 374, 86-101, 2014.
7
[8] Wang, W., Zeng, D., Chen, Q., Yin, X. Experimental determination and modeling of gypsum and insoluble anhydrite solubility in the systemCaSO4–H2SO4–H2O, Chemical Engineering Science, 101, 120-129, 2013.
8
[9] Thomsen, K., Rasmussen, P. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas-aqueous electrolytesystems, Chemical Engineering Science, 54, 1787-1802, 1999.
9
[10] Abrams, D., Prausnitz, J. Statistical Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures: A New Expression for the Excess Gibbs Energy of Partly or Completely Miscible Systems, AIChE Journal, 21(1), 116-128, 1975.
10
[11] Sander, B., Rasmussen, P., Fredenslund, A. Calculation of solid-liquid equilibria in aqueous solutionsof nitrate salts using an extended UNIQUAC equation, Chemical Engineering Science, 41, 1197-1202, 1986.
11
[12] Garcia, A., Thomsen, K., Stenby, E. Prediction of mineral scale formation in geothermal and oilfield operations using the extended UNIQUAC model Part I. Sulfate scaling minerals, Geothermics, 34, 61-97, 2005.
12
[13] Wagman, D., Evans, W., Parker, V., Schumm, R., Halow, I., Bailey, S. The NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties: Selected Values for Inorganic and C1 and C2 Organic Substances in SI Units, Chem. Ref. Data, 11(2), 2-9, 1982.
13
[14] Lyashchenko, A.K., Churagulov, B.R. Influence of pressure on the temperature coefficients of the solubility of electrolytes in water, Russ. J. Inorg. Chem., 26, 642-644, 1981.
14
[15] Howell, R.D., Raju, K., Atkinson, G., Thermodynamics of "Scale" mineral solubilities 4. SrSO4, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 37, 464-469, 1992.
15
[16] Robinson, R. A., Stokes, R. H. Eletrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed., 5th Revised Impression, Butterworth, London, 1970.
16
[17] Yang, H. T., Zeng, D. W., Voigt, W., Hefter, G., Liu, S. J., Chen, Q. Y. Isopiestic measurements on aqueous solutions of heavy metal sulfates: MSO4+H2O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn). 1. T = 323.15 K., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 59, 97-102, 2014.
17