2015
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Effect of thermoelastic damping in nonlinear beam model of MEMS resonators by differential quadrature method
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2
This paper presents a nonlinear model of a clampedclamped microbeam actuated by an electrostatic load with stretching and thermoelastic effects. The frequency of free vibration is calculated by discretization based on the Differential Quadrature (DQ) Method. The frequency is a complex value due to the thermoelastic effect that dissipates energy. By separating the real and imaginary parts of frequency, the quality factor of thermoelastic damping is calculated. Both the stretching and thermoelastic effects are validated by the referenced papers. This paper shows that the main nonlinearity of this model is voltage, which makes the difference between linear and nonlinear models. The variation of thermoelastic damping (TED) versus geometrical parameters, such as thickness, gap distance and length, is investigated and these results are compared by linear and nonlinear models in high voltages. This paper also shows that in high voltages the linear model has a large margin of error for calculating thermoelastic damping (TED) and thus the nonlinear model should be used.
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112
121


Nassim
Ale Ali
Department of Marine Engineering, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science &amp; Technology
Department of Marine Engineering, Khorramshahr
Iran
aleali@kmsu.ac.ir


Ardeshir
Mohammadi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood
Iran
akarami@yahoo.com
thermoelastic damping
stretching effect
resonator
differential quadrature method
[[1] Ali H. Nayfeh, Mohammad I. Younis, "Modeling and simulations of thermoelastic damping in microplates", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14 pp 1711–1717, 2004. ##[2] Nayfeh A H and Younis M I., "A new approach to the modeling and simulation of flexible microstructures under the effect of squeezefilm damping", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14, pp 170–181, 2004. ##[3] C. Zener, "Internal friction in solids I. Theory of internal friction in reeds", Physical Review, Volume 32, pp 230235, 1937. ##[4] C. Zener, "Internal friction in solids II. General theory of thermoelastic internal friction", Physical Review, Volume 53, pp 9099, 1937. ##[5] J. B. Alblas, "A note on the theory of thermoelastic damping", Journal of Thermal Stresses, Volume 4, Issue 34, pp 333355, 1981. ##[6] R. Lifshitz, M. L. Roukes, "Thermoelastic damping in micro and nanomechanical systems", Physical Review B, Volume 61, Number 8, pp 56005609, 2000. ##[7] Sudipto K. De, N. R. Aluru, "Theory of thermoelastic damping in electrostatically actuated microstructures", Physical Review B, 74, 144305, pp 113, 2006. ##[8] S. Prabhakar, S. Vengallatore, "Theory of thermoelastic damping in micromechanical resonators with twodimensional heat conduction", Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp 494502, 2008. ##[9] Enrico Serra, and Michele Bonaldi, "A finite element formulation for thermoelastic damping analysis", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 78, pp 671–691, 2009. ##[10] F.L. Guo, G.A. Rogerson, "Thermoelastic coupling effect on a micromachined beam resonator", Mechanics Research Communications, 30, pp 513–518, 2003. ##[11] Yuxin Sun and Masumi Saka, "Thermoelastic damping in microscale circular plate resonators", Journal of Sound and Vibration 329, pp 328–337, 2009. ##[12] Jinbok Choi, Maenghyo Cho, Jaewook Rhim, "Efficient prediction of the quality factors of micromechanical resonators", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 329, pp 84–95, 2010. ##[13] YunBo Yi, Mohammad A. Matin, "Eigenvalue Solution of Thermoelastic Damping in Beam Resonators Using a Finite Element Analysis", Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Vol. 129, pp 478483, 2007. ##[14] Fargas Marqu`es A, Costa Castell´o R and Shkel A M, "Modelling the electrostatic actuation of MEMS: state of the art" Technical Report, pp 133, 2005. ##[15] R. C. Batra, M. Porfiri, and D. Spinello, "Review of modeling electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical systems", Smart Materials and Structures, 16, pp 23–31, 2007. ##[16] AbdelRahman E. M., Younis M. I. and Nayfeh A. H., "Characterization of the mechanical behavior of an electrically actuated microbeam", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 12, pp 759–66, 2002. ##[17] Nayfeh A. H. and Younis M. I., "Dynamics of MEMS resonators under superharmonic and subharmonic excitations", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15, pp 1840–7, 2005. ##[18] Younis M. I. and Nayfeh A. H., "A study of the nonlinear response of a resonant microbeam to an electric actuation", Nonlinear Dynamics, 31, pp 91–117, 2003. ##[19] Younis M. I., AbdelRahman E. M. and Nayfeh A. H., "A reducedorder model for electrically actuated microbeambased MEMS", Journal of Microelectromech. System, 12, pp 672–80, 2003. ##[20] AbdelRahman E. M. and Nayfeh A. H. "Secondary resonances of electrically actuated resonant microsensors", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 13, pp 491–501, 2003. ##[21] Nayfeh A. H. and Younis M. I., "Dynamics of MEMS resonators under superharmonic and subharmonic excitations", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15, pp 1840–7, 2005. ##[22] Najar F., Choura S., AbdelRahman E. M., ElBorgi S. and Nayfeh A. H., "Dynamic analysis of variablegeometry electrostatic microactuators", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14, pp 900–6, 2006. ##[23] Zhao X., AbdelRahman E. M. and Nayfeh A. H., "A reducedorder model for electrically actuated microplates", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14, pp 900–906, 2004. ##[24] Vogl G. W. and Nayfeh A. H., "A reducedorder model for electrically actuated clamped circular plates", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15, pp 684–90, 2005. ##[25] R.E. Bellman, J. Casti, "Differential quadrature and long term integration", Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, Volume 34, 235–238, 1971. ##[26] Feng Y., Bert CW., “Application of the quadrature method to flexural vibration analysis of a geometrically nonlinear beam”, Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 156, pp 318, 1993. ##[27] Guo Q. Zhong H., “Nonlinear vibration analysis of beams by a splinebased differential quadrature method”, Journal of Shock and Vibration, Volume 269, pp 413420, 2004. ##[28] Zhong H., Guo Q., “Nonlinear vibration analysis of Timoshenko beams using the differential quadrature method ”, Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 32, pp 223234. ##[29] Han K. M., Xiao J. B., Du Z. M., “Differential quadrature method for Mindlin plates on Winkler foundations”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Volume 38, pp 405421, 1996. ##[30] Liew K. M., Han J. B., Xiao Z. M., “Differential quadrature method for thick symmetric crossply laminates with firstorder shear flexibility”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 33, pp 26472658, 1996. ##[31] Liew K. M., Han J. B., “A fournode differential quadrature method for straightsided quadrilateral Reissner/Mindlin plates”, Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering, Volume 13, pp 7381, 1997. ##[32] Han J. B., Liew K. M., “An eightnode curvilinear differential quadrature formulation for Reissner/Mindlin plates”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Volume 141, pp 265280, 1997. ##[33] P. Malekzadeh, “Differential quadrature large amplitude free vibration analysis of laminated skew plates based on FSDT”, Composite Structures, Volume 83, Issue 2, pp189200, 2008. ##[34] P. Malekzadeh, G. Karami, “Large amplitude flexural vibration analysis of tapered plates with edges elastically restrained against rotation using DQM”, Engineering Structures, Volume 30, Issue 10, pp 28502858, October 2008. ##[35] P. Malekzadeh, “Threedimensional free vibration analysis of thick functionally graded plates on elastic foundations”, Composite Structures, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 367373, July 2009. ##[36] P. Malekzadeh, A. R. Vosoughi, “DQM large amplitude vibration of composite beams on nonlinear elastic foundations with restrained edges”, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Volume 14, pp. 906–915, 2009. ##[37] Nayfeh A. H., Frank P. P., linear and nonlinear structural mechanics, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, pp 215225, 2004. ##[38] B. S. Sarma and T. K. Varadan, “LagrangeType Formulation for Finite Element Analysis of NonLinear Beam Vibrations”, Journal of sound and vibration, Volume 86, pp. 6170, 1983. ##[39] A. Koochi, Hamid M. Sedighi, M. Abadyan, "Modeling the size dependent pullin instability of beamtype NEMS using strain gradient theory" Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 11, pp. 18061829, 2014. ##[40] A. Koochi, H. HosseiniToudeshky, H. R. Ovesy, "modeling the influence of surface effect on instability of nanocantilever in presence of van der waals force" Volume 13, No. 4, 1250072, 2013.##]
Sizedependent free vibration analysis of rectangular nanoplates with the consideration of surface effects using finite difference method
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2
In this article, finite difference method (FDM) is used to study the sizedependent free vibration characteristics of rectangular nanoplates considering the surface stress effects. To include the surface effects in the equations, GurtinMurdoch continuum elasticity approach has been employed. The effects of surface properties including the surface elasticity, surface residual stress and surface mass density are considered to be the main causes for sizedependent behavior that arise from the increase in surfacetovolume ratios at smaller scales. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the difference between the natural frequency obtained by considering the surface effects and that obtained without considering surface properties. It is observed that the effects of surface properties tend to diminish in thicker nanoplates, and vice versa.
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133


Morteza
karimi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan
Iran
mortezakarimi90@yahoo.com


Mohammad Hossein
Shokrani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan
Iran
mh.shokrani@me.iut.ac.ir


Ali Reza
Shahidi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan
Iran
shahidi@cc.iut.ac.ir
free vibration
surface effects
sizedependent
rectangular nanoplate
finite difference method
[[1] Lian, P., Zhu, X., Liang, S., Li, Z., Yang, W., Wang, H., “Large reversible capacity of high quality graphene sheets as an anode material for lithiumion batteries”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 39093914, 2010. ##[2] Saito, Y., Uemura, S., “Field emission from carbon nanotubes and its application to electron sources”, Carbon, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 169182, 2000. ##[3] SakhaeePour, A., Ahmadian, M. T., Vafai, A., “Applications of singlelayered graphene sheets as mass sensors and atomistic dust detectors”, Solid State Communications, Vol. 145, No. 4, pp. 168172, 2008. ##[4] Wang, Z. L., Song, J., “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays”, Science, Vol. 312, No. 5771, pp. 242–246, 2006. ##[5] Ball, P., “Roll up for the revolution”, Nature, Vol. 414, No. 6860, pp. 142–144, 2001. ##[6] Baughman, R. H., Zakhidov, A. A., DeHeer, W. A., “Carbon nanotubes–the route toward applications”, Science, Vol. 297, No. 5582, pp. 787–792, 2002. ##[7] Li, C., Chou, T. W., “A structural mechanics approach for the analysis of carbon nanotubes”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 2487–2499, 2003. ##[8] Govindjee, S., Sackman, J. L., “On the use of continuum mechanics to estimate the properties of nanotubes”, Solid State Communications, Vol. 110, No. 4, pp. 227–230, 1999. ##[9] He, X. Q., Kitipornchai, S., Liew, K. M., “Buckling analysis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: a continuum model accounting for van der Waals interaction”, Journal of Mechanics and Physics of solids, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 303–326, 2005. ##[10] Gurtin, M. E., Murdoch, A. I., “A continuum theory of elastic material surfaces”, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 291–323, 1975. ##[11] Gurtin, M. E, Murdoch, A. I., “Surface stress in solids”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 431–440, 1978. ##[12] Assadi, A., Farshi, B., AliniaZiazi, A., “Size dependent dynamic analysis of nanoplates”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 12, pp. 124310, 2010. ##[13] Assadi, A., “Size dependent forced vibration of nanoplates with consideration of surface effects”, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 3575–3588, 2013. ##[14] Assadi, A., Farshi, B., “Vibration characteristics of circular nanoplates”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 108, No. 7, pp. 074312, 2010. ##[15] Assadi, A., Farshi, B., “Size dependent stability analysis of circular ultrathin films in elastic medium with consideration of surface energies”, Physica E, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 1111–1117, 2011. ##[16] Gheshlaghi, B., Hasheminejad, S. M., “Surface effects on nonlinear free vibration of nanobeams”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 934–937, 2011. ##[17] Nazemnezhad, R., Salimi, M., Hosseini Hashemi, S. h., Asgharifard Sharabiani, P., “An analytical study on the nonlinear free vibration of nanoscale beams incorporating surface density effects”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 43, No. 8, pp. 2893–2897, 2012. ##[18] HosseiniHashemi, S., Nazemnezhad, R., “An analytical study on the nonlinear free vibration of functionally graded nanobeams incorporating surface effects”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 52, pp. 199–206, 2013. ##[19] Asgharifard Sharabiani, P., Haeri Yazdi, M. R., “Nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded nanobeams with surface effects”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 581–586, 2013. ##[20] Ansari, R., Sahmani, S., “Bending behavior and buckling of nanobeams including surface stress effects corresponding to different beam theories”, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 1244–1255, 2011. ##[21] Yan, Z., Jiang, L., “Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 45, No. 25, pp. 255401, 2012. ##[22] Ansari, R., Shahabodini, A., Shojaei, M. F., Mohammadi, V., Gholami, R., “On the bending and buckling behaviors of Mindlin nanoplates considering surface energies”, Physica E, Vol. 57, pp. 126–137, 2014. ##[23] Ansari, R., Mohammadi, V., Faghih Shojaei, M., Gholami, R., Sahmani, S., “On the forced vibration analysis of Timoshenko nanobeams based on the surface stress elasticity theory”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 60, pp. 158–166, 2014. ##[24] Farajpour, A., Dehghany, M., Shahidi, A. R., “Surface and nonlocal effects on the axisymmetric buckling of circular graphene sheets in thermal environment”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 50, pp. 333–343, 2013. ##[25] Asemi, S. R., Farajpour, A., “Decoupling the nonlocal elasticity equations for thermomechanical vibration of circular graphene sheets including surface effects”, Physica E, Vol. 60, pp. 80–90, 2014. ##[26] Mouloodi, S., Khojasteh, J., Salehi, M., Mohebbi, S., “Size dependent free vibration analysis of Multicrystalline nanoplates by considering surface effects as well as interface region”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 85, pp. 160–167, 2014. ##[27] Mouloodi, S., Mohebbi, S., Khojasteh, J., Salehi, M., “Sizedependent static characteristics of multicrystalline nanoplates by considering surface effects”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 79, pp. 162–167, 2014. ##[28] Wang, K. F., Wang, B. L., “A finite element model for the bending and vibration of nanoscale plates with surface effect”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 74, pp. 22–29, 2013. ##[29] Karamooz Ravari, M. R., Talebi, S. A., Shahidi, R., “Analysis of the buckling of rectangular nanoplates by use of finitedifference method”, Meccanica Vol. 49, No. 6, pp. 1443–1455, 2014. ##[30] Karamooz Ravari, M.R., Shahidi, R., “Axisymmetric buckling of the circular annular nanoplates using finite difference method”,Meccanica Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 135–144, 2013.##]
Fuzzy Modeling and Synchronization of a New Hyperchaotic Complex System with Uncertainties
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In this paper, the synchronization of a new hyperchaotic complex system based on TS fuzzy model is proposed. First, the considered hyperchaotic system is represented by TS fuzzy model equivalently. Then, by using the parallel distributed compensation (PDC) method and by applying linear system theory and exact linearization (EL) technique, a fuzzy controller is designed to realize the synchronization. Finally, simulation results are carried out to demonstrate the performance of our proposed control scheme, and also the robustness of the designed fuzzy controller to uncertainties.
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134
144


Hadi
Delavari
Hamedan university of Technology
Hamedan university of Technology
Iran
hdelavary@gmail.com


Mostafa
Shokrian
Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology
Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan
Iran
mostafashokrian@stu.hut.ac.ir
a new hyperchaotic complex system
hyperchaotic synchronization
TS fuzzy model
parallel distributed compensation (PDC) method
exact linearization (EL)
[[1] Chen, G. and Dong, X.: 'From Chaos to Order: Methodologies, Perspectives and Applications' (World Scientific, 1998, Series a, Book 24) ##[2] Luo, X.S.: 'Chaos control, theory and method of synchronization and its application' (Guangxi Normal University Press, 2007), pp. 529 ##[3] Elabbasy, E.M., Agiza, H.N., EIDessoky, M.M.: 'Adaptive synchronization of a hyperchaotic system with uncertain parameter', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2006, 30, pp. 11331142 ##[4] Jia, Q.: 'Projective synchronization of a new hyperchaotic system', Phys. Lett. A, 2007, 370, pp. 4045 ##[5] Wang, F.Z., Chen, Z.Q., Wu, W.J., Yuan, Z.Z.: 'A novel hyperchaos evolved from three dimensional modified Lorenz chaotic system', Chin. Phys., 2007, 16, pp. 32383243 ##[6] Wang, F.Q., Liu, C.X.: 'Hyperchaos evolved from the Liu chaotic system', Chin. Phys., 2006, 15, pp. 963968. ##[7] Zhao, J.C., Lu, J.A.: 'Using sampleddata feedback control and linear feedback synchronization in a new hyperchaotic system', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2008, 35, pp. 376382 ##[8] Nikolov, S., Clodong, S.: 'Hyperchaoschaoshyperchaos transition in modified Rossler systems', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2006, 28, pp. 252263 ##[9] Pecora, L.M., Carroll, T.L.: 'Synchronization in chaotic systems', Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990, 64, pp. 821–824 ##[10] Chen, X.R., Liu, C.X., Wang, F.Q., Li, Y.X.: 'Study on the fractionalorder Liu chaotic system with circuit experiment and its control', Acta Phys. Sin., 2008, 57, (3), pp. 14161422 ##[11] Wang, X.Y., Jia, B., Wang, M.J.: 'Active tracking control of the hyperchaotic LC oscillator system', Int J. Modern Phys. B, 2007, 21, (20), pp. 36433655 ##[12] Wang, F.Q., Liu, C.X.: 'Passive control of a 4scroll chaotic system', Chin. Phys., 2007, 16, (4), pp. 946950 ##[13] Zhang, M., Hu, S.S.: 'Adaptive control of uncertain chaotic systems with time delays using dynamic structure neural network', Acta Phys. Sin., 2008, 57, (3), pp. 14311438 ##[14] Shen, L.Q., Wang, M.: 'Adaptive control of chaotic systems based on a single layer neural network', Phys. Lett. A, 2007, 368, (5), pp. 379382 ##[15] Chang, K.M.: 'Adaptive control for a class of chaotic systems with nonlinear inputs and disturbances', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2008, 36, (2), pp. 460468 ##[16] Liu, X.W., Huang, Q.Z., Gao, X., Shao, S.Q.: 'Impulsive control of chaotic systems with exogenous perturbations', Chin. Phys., 2007, 16, (8), pp. 22722277 ##[17] Guan, X.P., Chen, C.L., Peng, H.P., Fan, Z.P.: 'Timedelayed feedback control of timedelay chaotic systems', Int J. Bifur. Chaos, 2003, 13, (1), pp. 193205 ##[18] Wang, X.Y., Gao, Y.: 'The inverse optimal control of a chaotic system with multiple attractors', Modern Phys. Lett. B, 2007, 21, (29), pp. 19992007 ##[19] Ma, Y.C., Huang, L.F., Zhang, Q.L.: 'Robust guaranteed cost H∞ control for uncertain timevarying delay system', Acta Phys. Sin., 2007, 56, (7), pp. 37443752 ##[20] Zhang, H., Ma, X.K., Li, M., Zou, J. L.: 'Controlling and tracking hyperchaotic R¨ossler system via active backstepping design', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2005, 26, (2), pp. 353361 ##[21] Bonakdar, M., Samadi, M., Salarieh, H., Alasty, A.: 'Stabilizing periodic orbits of chaotic systems using fuzzy control of poincare map', Chaos, Solit. & Fract., 2008, 36, (3), pp. 682693 ##[22] Gao, X., Liu, X.W.: 'Delayed fuzzy control of a unified chaotic system', Acta Phys. Sin., 2007, 56, (1), pp. 8490 ##[23] Wang, Y.N., Tan, W., Duan, F.: 'Robust fuzzy control for chaotic dynamics in Lorenz systems with uncertainties', Chin. Phys., 2006, 15, (1), pp. 8994 ##[24] Lian, K.Y., Liu, P., Wu, T.C., Lin, W.C.: 'Chaotic control using fuzzy modelbased methods', Int J. Bifur. Chaos, 2002, 12, (8), pp. 18271841 ##[25] Tanaka, K., Ikeda, T., Wang, H.O.: 'A unified approach to controlling chaos via an LMIbased fuzzy control system design', IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 1998, 45, (10), pp. 10211040 ##[26] Takagi, T., Sugeno, M.: 'Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control', IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 1985, 15, pp. 116132 ##[27] Delavari, H., Faieghi, M.R.: 'Control of an uncertain fractionalorder chaotic system via fuzzy fractionalorder sliding mode control', 13th Iranian Student Conference on Electrical Engineering (ISCEE 2010), 1517 Sep., Tehran, Iran, 2010 ##[28] Delavari, H., Ghaderi, R., Ranjbar, A., Momeni, S.: 'Fuzzy fractionalorder sliding mode controller for nonlinear systems', Comm. In Non. Sci.& Num. Sim., 2010, 15, pp. 963978 ##[29] Delavari, H., Faieghi, M.R., Baleanu, D.: 'Control of an uncertain fractionalorder Liu system via fractionalorder sliding mode control', Journal of Vib. And Cont., 2012, 18, pp. 13661374 ##[30] Zhang, H., Liao, X., Yu, J.: 'Fuzzy modeling and synchronization of hyperchaotic systems', Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 2005, 26, pp. 835–843 ##[31] Zhao, Y., Han, X., Sun, Q.: 'Robust fuzzy synchronization control for a class of hyperchaotic systems with parametric uncertainties', IEEE Conf. on Indust. Elect. & Applic., May 2009, pp. 11491153 ##[32] Xia, H., Jinde, C.: 'Synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen system based on fuzzy state feedback controller', Chinese Control Conf., 2010, pp. 672676 ##[33] Yi, S., Lin, Z., Liangrui, T.: 'Synchronization of hyperchaotic system based on fuzzy model and its application in secure communication', Int. Conf. on Wireless Communication Networking and Mobile Computing, 2010, pp. 15 ##[34] Pan, Y., Li, B., Liu, Y.: 'TS fuzzy identical synchronization of a class of generalized Henon hyperchaotic maps', IEEE Int. Conf. on Information and Automation, 2010, pp. 623626 ##[35] Xu, M.J., Zhao, Y., Han, X.C., Zhang, Y.Y.: 'Generalized asymptotic synchronization between Chen hyperchaotic system and Liu hyperchaotic system: a fuzzy modeling method', Chinese Conf. on Control & Decision, 2009, pp. 361366 ##[36] Zhao, Y., Chi, X., Sun, Q.: 'Fuzzy robust generalized synchronization of two nonidentical hyperchaotic systems based on TS models', Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery, 2009, pp. 305309 ##[37] Fowler, A.C., Gibbon, J.D., McGuinness, M.J.: 'The complex Lorenz equations', Physica D, 1982, 4, pp. 139163 ##[38] Ning, C.Z., Haken, H.: 'Detuned lasers and the complex Lorenz equations: Subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations', Phys. Rev. A, 1990, 41, pp. 3826–3837 ##[39] Gibbon, J.D., McGuinness, M.J.: 'The real and complex Lorenz equations in rotating fluids and lasers', Physica D, 1983, 5, pp. 108–122 ##[40] Peng, J.H., Ding, E.J., Ging, M., Yang, W.: 'Synchronizing hyperchaos with a scalar transmitted signal', Phys. Rev. Lett., 1996, 76, pp. 904–907 ##[41] Mahmoud, G.M., Mahmoud, E.E.: 'Synchronization and control of hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system', Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010, 80, pp. 22862296 ##[42] Mahmoud, E.E.: 'Dynamics and synchronization of new hyperchaotic complex Lorenz system', Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 2012, 55, pp. 19511962 ##[43] Lian, K.Y., Chiang, T.S., Chiu, C.S., Liu, P.: 'Synthesis of fuzzy modelbased design to synchronization and secure communications for chaotic systems', IEEE Trans. Syst. Man. Cybern., 2001, 31, pp. 6683 ##[44] Mahmoud, G.M., Bountis, T., Mahmoud, E.E.: 'Active control and global synchronization of the complex Chen and Lü systems', Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos, 2007, 17, pp. 42954308 ##[45] Mahmoud, G.M., Bountis, T., AlKashif, M.A., Aly, S.A.: 'Dynamical properties and synchronization of complex nonlinear equations for detuned lasers', Dyn. Syst., 2009, 24, pp. 6379 ##[46] Mahmoud, G.M., Ahmed, M.E., Sabor, N.: 'On autonomous and nonautonomous modified hyperchaotic complex Lü systems', Int. J. Bifurc. Chaos, 2011, 21, pp. 19131926 ##[47] Mahmoud, G.M., Ahmed, M.E.: 'A hyperchaotic complex system generating two, three, and fourscroll attractors', Journal of Vibration and Control, 2012, 18, (6), pp. 841849##]
Computation of Slip analysis to detect adhesion for protection of rail vehicle and derailment
2
2
Adhesion level for the proper running of rail wheelset on track has remained a significant problem for researchers in detecting slippage to avoid accidents. In this paper, the slippage of rail wheels has been observed applying forward and lateral motions to slip velocity and torsion motion. The longitudinal and lateral forces behavior is watched with respect to traction force to note correlation based on the angle of attack. The deriving torque relation with tractive torque is watched to check slippage. Coulomb’s law is applied in terms of tangential forces to normal forces owing to creep coefficient and friction to get the adhesion. Nadal’s limiting ratio is applied to escape from wheel climb and derailment from track depending upon wheel profile and flange on straight path and curves.
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145
151


Zulfiqar
Soomro
Directorate of Postgraduate Studies, Mehran University of Engg;&amp;Tech; Jamshoro (Pakistan)
Directorate of Postgraduate Studies, Mehran
Iran
786zas@gmail.com
Traction
Torsion
creep forces
angle of contact
creep coefficient and friction
[[1] Kung, C., Kim, H., Kim, M. & Goo, B., “Simulations on Creep Forces Acting on the Wheel of a Rolling Stock.” International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, Seoul, Korea. Oct. 14 – 17, 2008. ##[2] Hwang, D., Kim, M., Park, D., Kim, Y. & Kim, D. “Readhesion Control for High Speed Electric Railway with Parallel Motor Control System.” Proceedings of 5th International Conference, ISIE, IEEE International Symposium, Vol. 2, pp. 1024 – 1029, 2001. ##[3] Hwang, D., Kim, M., Park, D., Kim, Y. & Lee, J. “Hybrid Readhesion Control Method for Traction System of HighSpeed Railway.” Proceedings of 5th International Conference, ISIE, IEEE International Symposium, Vol. 2, pp. 739 – 742 Aug. 2001. ##[4] Watanabe, T. & Yamashita, M. “Basic Study of Antislip Control without Speed Sensor for Multiple Drive of Electric Railway Vehicles.” Proceedings of Power Conversion Conference, Osaka, IEEE, Vol. 3, pp. 1026 – 1032, 2002. ##[5] Mei, T., Yu, J. & Wilson, D. “A Mechatronic Approach for Effective Wheel Slip Control in Railway Traction.” Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Vol. 223, Part. F, pp. 295 – 304, 2009. ##[6] Barbosa R.S., A 3D Contact Force Safety Criterion for Flange Climb Derailment of a Railway Wheel, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 289–300, 2004. ##[7] Braghin F., Bruni S. and Diana G. (2006), Experimental and numerical investigation on the derailment of a railway wheelset with solid axle, Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 44, No. 4, , pp. 305–325. (2006) ##[8] Chelli F., Corradi R., Diana G., Facchinetti A., Wheel–rail contact phenomena and derailment conditions in light urban vehicles. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference On Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems. Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 461468, 1013, 2003. ##[9] Gilchrist A.O., Brickle B.V., A reexamination of the proneness to derailment of a railway wheelset, J. Mech. Eng. Sci., Vol. 18, pp. 131–141, 1976. ##[10] Sawley K. and Wu H., The formation of hollowworn wheels and their effect on wheel/rail interaction, Wear, Vol. 258, pp. 11791186, 2005. ##[11] Kondo, K., Antislip control technologies for the railway vehicle traction," Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), IEEE, pp.1306,1311, 912 Oct. 2012 ##[12] AriasCuevas O., Low adhesion in the wheel–rail contact, Doctoral thesis, TUD, Delft, 2010 [1] E. Andersson and M. Berg. J¨arnv¨agssystem och sp°arfordon. KTH H¨ogskoletryckeri, Stockholm, Sweden, August 1999. In Swedish, (2010. ##[13] Ishikawa, Y., Kawamurra, A., Maximum adhesive force control in super high speed train. IEEE, Proceedings of the Power Conversion Conference, Nagaoka, 2, pp. 951–954, August 1997. ##[14] Takaoka, Y., Kawamura, A., Disturbance observer based adhesion control for shinkansen. IEEE, Proceedings, 6th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control, pp. 169–174, 2000. ##[15] S. Senini, F. Flinders, and W. Oghanna. Dynamic simulation of wheelrail interaction for locomotive traction studies. Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference, pp. 27–34, April 1993. ##[16] Nadal M. J., Locomotives a Vapeur, Collection Encyclopédie cientifique, Bibliothèque de Mécanique Applique´ et Génie, Paris, 1908. ##[17] Dukkipati R.V., Vehicle Dynamics, Boca Raton: CRC Press, ISBN 084930976X (2000). ##[18] International Heavy Haul Association: Guidelines to Best Practices for Heavy Haul Railway Operations: Wheel and Rail Interface Issues, First Edition May 2001 ##[19]. International Heavy Haul Association: Guidelines to Best Practices for Heavy Haul Railway Operations, 2009: Infrastructure, Construction and Maintenance Issues 13. John Tuna and Curtis Urban, TTCI, Pueblo, Colorado, USA; IHHA 2007 Specialist Technical Session, Kiruna., 2009.##]
Helicopter Blade Stability Analysis Using Aeroelastic Frequency Response Functions
2
2
In the present paper, the aeroelastic stability of helicopter rotor blade is determined using Aeroelastic Frequency Response Function. The conventional methods of aeroelastic stability usually use an iterative procedure while the present method does not require such approach. Aeroelastic Frequency Response Functions are obtained by inverting dynamic stiffness matrix of the aeroelastic system. System response could be obtained through exciting each degree of freedom. The resulting response was then plotted and the behavior of this function was investigated to find out the stability criteria and system natural frequencies. The results of this method are compared with stability boundaries obtained from the conventional pk method and it can be inferred that, compared to other methods, the present algorithm is of less numerical cost.
1

152
160


Mostafa
Mohagheghi
Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Aerospace group, University of Tehran, Iran
Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies,
Iran
mo.mohagheghi@ut.ac.ir


Ali
Salehzadeh Nobari
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir
Iran
sal1358@aut.ac.ir


Alireza
Seyed Roknizadeh
Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran
Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical
Iran
s.roknizadeh@scu.ac.ir
aeroelastic frequency response function
rotor blade
aeroelastic stability
critical pitch angle
[[1]. Hassig H. J., “An Approximate True Damping Solution of the Flutter Equation by Determinant Iteration”, Journal of Aircraft, 8(11), pp. 885890, 1971. ##[2]. Imregun M., “Prediction of Flutter Stability Using Aeroelastic Frequency Response Functions”, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 9 (4), pp. 419434, 1995. ##[3]. Roknizadeh, S. A. S., “Stability Analysis of Aeroelastic Systems Based on Aeroelastic FRF and Condistion Number”, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 84, No. 5, pp. 299310, 2012. ##[4]. Ewins D. J., Modal Testing: Theory, Practice and Application. 2Ed., Research Studies Press, Hertfordshire, England, 2000. ##[5]. Hodges D. H. and Dowell E. H., “Nonlinear Equations of Motion for the Elastic Bending and Torsion of Twisted Nonuniform Rotor Blades”, NASA TN D7818, 1974. ##[6]. Hodges D. H. and Ormiston R. A., “Stability of Elastic Bending and Torsion of Uniform Cantilever Rotor Blades in Hover with Variable Structural Coupling”, NASA TN D8192, 1976. ##[7]. Shahverdi H., “Aeroelastic Analysis of Helicopter Rotor Blades Using Reduced Order Aerodynamic Model”, Ph. D. Dissertation, Amirkabir University of Technology, 2006. ##[8]. Afagh F. F. and Nitzsche F. and Morozova N., “Dynamic Modeling and Stability of Hingeless Helicopter Blades with a Smart Spring”, The Aeronautical Journal, 108 (1085), pp. 369377, 2004. ##[9]. Nariman M., “Vibration Computation of Helicopter Rotor Blades Using Unsteady Aerodynamic Theory”, M.Sc. Thesis, Amirkabir University of Technology, 2007. ##[10]. Gennaretti M. and Molica Colella M. and Bernardini G., “Analysis of Helicopter Vibratory Hub Loads Allevation by Cyclic Trailingedge Blade Flap Actuation”, The Aeronautical Journal, 113 (1146), pp. 549556, 2009. ##[11]. Johnson W., Helicopter Theory, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1980. ##[12]. Bielawa R. L., Rotary Wing Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity, AIAA Inc., Washington, 1992. ##[13]. Sotoodeh Z., “Aeroelastic Analysis of Helicopter Cantilever Rotor Blade with PitersHey Induced Flow Model in Hover”, M.Sc. Thesis, Sharif University of Technology, 2007. ##[14]. Haddadpour H. and FirouzAbadi R. D., “True Damping and Frequency Prediction for Aeroelastic Systems: The PP Method”, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 25(7), pp. 11771188, 2009.##]
Springback Modeling in Lbending Process Using Continuum Damage Mechanics Concept
2
2
Springback is one of the most common and important issues in metal forming area. Due to the fact that springback depends on a variety of parameters, it is hard to predict. Hence, in this paper, the effect of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) on springback was investigated based on the Lemaitre isotropic unified damage law. Swift’s hardening law was employed to describe isotropic hardening behavior. The results indicated that considering the damage mechanics concept in springback modeling increases the predictability of springback.
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161
167


Mehdi
Shahabi
Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Iran
m_shahabi@shirazu.ac.ir


Ali
Nayebi
Shiraz University
Shiraz University
Iran
nayebi@shirazu.ac.ir
Springback prediction
Damage
Simulation
Lbending test
FEM
[[1] B. S. Levy, Empirically derived equations for predicting springback in bending, Journal of AppliedWorking Metal, Vol. 3,pp. 135–141, 1984. ##[2] Chan, K. C., Theoretical analysis of springback in bending of integrated circuit lead frames, International journal of materials processing technology, Vol. 91, pp. 111–115, 1999. ##[3] Nguyen, V T., Chen, Z., Thomson, P F., Prediction of springback in anisotropic sheet metals, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 218, pp. 651661, 2004. ##[4] Gau, J. T., Kinzel, G. L., A new model for springback prediction in which the Bauschinger effect is considered, International journal of mechanical sciences, Vol. 43, pp. 1813–1832, 2001. ##[5] Lee, M.G., Kim, D., Kim, C., Wenner, M.L., Chung, K., Springback evaluation of automotive sheets based on isotropickinematic hardening laws and nonquadratic anisotropic yield functions part III: applications, International journal of plasticity, Vol. 21, pp. 915–953, 2005. ##[6] Taherizadeh, A., Green, D., Ghaei, A., Yoon, JW., A nonassociated constitutive model with mixed isokinematic hardening for finite element simulation of sheet metal forming, International journal of plasticity, Vol. 26, pp. 288–309, 2010. ##[7] Chatti, S., Hermi, N., The effect of nonlinear recovery on springback prediction, Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol. 89, pp. 13671377, 2011. ##[8] Yu, H. Y., Variation of elastic modulus during plastic deformation and its influence on springback, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 30, pp. 846850, 2009. ##[9] Yoshida, F., Uemori, T., A model of largestrain cyclic plasticity describing the Bauschinger effect and work hardening stagnation, International journal of plasticity, Vol. 18, pp. 661686, 2002. ##[10] Ghaei, A., Green, D., Taherizadeh, A., Semiimplicit numerical integration of Yoshida–Uemori twosurface plasticity model, International journal of mechanical sciences, Vol. 52, pp. 531–540, 2010. ##[11] Chatti, S., Modeling of the elastic modulus evolution in unloadingreloading stages,International Journal of Material Forming,Vol. 6, pp. 96101, 2013. ##[12] Vrh, M., Halilovič, M., Starman, B., A new anisotropic elastoplastic model with degradation of elastic modulus for accurate springback simulations, International Journal of Material Forming,Vol. 4, pp. 217–225, 2011. ##[13] Gurson AL (1977) Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and growth, part I: yield criteria and flow rules for porous ductile materials,Journal of Engineering Material Technology, Vol. 99, pp. 2–15. ##[14] Lemaitre, J., A course on damage mechanics, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1992. ##[15] Lemaitre, J., Desmorat, R., Engineering damage mechanics, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005. ##[16] Meinders T, Burchitz IA, Bonte MHA, Lingbeek RA. Numerical product design, springback prediction, compensation and optimization. International Journal of Machining Tools Manufacture2008;48:499–514. ##[17] I. Burchitz, Springback: improvement of its predictability, Literature study report, NIMR project MC1.02121, Netherlands institute for metals research, 2005.##]