2017
3
2
0
66
Shape and geometrical parameter effects of a bimorph piezoelectric beam on energy harvesting performance
2
2
In this paper, the shape influence of piezoelectric beams including triangle, trapezoid, rectangle, inverted trapezoid, convex parabola, concave parabola, and combshaped (a combination of two triangular beams with a connector of 4 mm length) are addressed and analyzed by FEM. The analysis is performed for a bimorph piezoelectric beam. The analyzed parameters include the beam length, thickness and width of the piezoelectric layer. The study is performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software for all seven shapes. The results show that due to the mechanical properties of the beams, the natural frequency of the triangular beam is more for all considered parameters. In addition, as the width of the beam end increases, the natural frequency reduces, too. Since natural frequency is inversely related to electric power, the inverted trapezoidal beam has the highest electric power and the triangular beam has the lowest one.
1

92
102


Amir Ashkan
Sarafraz
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Iran
M.Sc. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
amirashkansarafraz@yahoo.com


Seyed Alireza
Seyed Roknizadeh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz,Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
ali_roknizadeh@yahoo.com
Piezoelectric beam
Bimorph
Geometry
Finite element
[[1] Mitcheson, P. D., Green, T. C., Yeatman, E. M., & Holmes, A.S., Architectures for vibrationdriven micropower generators, Journal of MicroElectromechanical Systems, 13, 429440, 2004. ##[2] Miyazaki, M., Tanaka, H., Ono, G., Nagano, T., Ohkubo, N., Kawahara, T., & Yano, K., Electricenergy generation using variablecapacitive resonator for powerfree LSI: Efficiency analysis and fundamental experiment, Low Power Electronics and Design, 2003. ISLPED '03. Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on, Seoul: South Korea, 193198, 2003. ##[3] Torah, R. N., Beeby, S. P., Tudor, M. J., O’Donnell, T., & Roy, S., Development of a cantilever beam generator employing vibration energy harvesting, The 6th Int. Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (Power MEMS 2006), United States, 181184, 2006. ##[4] Roundy, S., Wright, P. K., & Rabaey, J., A study of low level vibrations as a power source for wireless sensor nodes, Computer Communications, 26, 11311144, 2003 ##[5] Zhu, D., Beeby, S., Tudor, J., White, N., & Harris, N., Improving output power of piezoelectric energy harvesters using multilayer structures, Procedia Engineering, 25, 199202, 2011. ##[6] Liu, Z., Lia, L., Modeling of energy harvesting device with segmented piezoelectric layer. Elsevier, 47, 470 473, 2012. ##[7] Kumar, A., Sharma, A., Kumar, R., Vaish, R., & Vishal, S. Ch., Finite element analysis of vibration energy harvesting using leadfree piezoelectric materials: A comparative study, Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 2(2), 138143, 2014. ##[8] Reddy, A. R., Umapathy, M. M., Ezhilarasi, D., & Uma, G., Cantilever beam with trapezoidal cavity for improved energy harvesting, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 16(8), 18751881, 2014. ##[9] Mateu, L., Moll, F., Optimum piezoelectric bending beam structure for energy harvesting using shoe inserts, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 16(10), 835845, 2005. ##[10] Lu, F., Lee, H.P., Lim, S.P., Modelling and analysis of micro piezoelectric power generators for microelectromechanical systems applications, Smart Materials and Structures, 13(1), 5763, 2004. ##[11] IEEE standard on piezoelectricity. New York, 1987. ##[12] Williams C. B., & Yates R. B., Analysis of a microelectric generator for microsystems, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 52(3), 811, 1996. ##[13] Vierck, R. K., Vibration analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Crowell Company, 1978. ##[14] Momeni, M., Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters to Improve Electrical Output Power Using Finite Element Method , 3rd International Engineering materials & Metallurgy conference, 2014. ##[15] Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., A piezoelectric vibration based generator for wireless electronics, Smart Materials and Structures, 13(5), 11311142, 2004. ##[16] Kianpour, A, Jahani, K, The effect of geometrical parameters on performance of piezoelectric harvesters under basic harmonic vibrations using finite element method, Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 2(2), 138143, 2014. ##[17] Pan, C.T., Liu, Z. H., Chen, Y. C., & Liu, C. F., Design and fabrication of Flexible piezomicrogenerator by depositing ZnO thin films on PET substrates, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 159(1), 96104, 2010. ##[18] Sharpes, N., Abdelkefi, A., & Priya, Sh., Twodimensional concentrated stress lowfrequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, Applied Physics Letters, 107(9), 093901, 2015.##]
Perturbation Solutions for the Study of MHD Blood as a Third Grade Nanofluid Transporting Gold Nanoparticles through a Porous Channel
2
2
In this paper, the flow, thermal and concentration analyses of blood as a third grade with gold as nanoparticles through a porous channel are carried out using regular perturbation method. The analysis are carried out using Vogel’s model of temperaturedependent viscosity. The developed models were used to investigate the effects of the nano particles on the concentration, temperature and velocity of the fluid as it flows through the porous medium of a hollow channel in the presence of magnetic field. Also, the effects of fluid parameters such as Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscous dissipation, nonNewtonian, porosity, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), diffusion constant at various values on the fluid were established. The results generated in this work were found to be in good agreement with the results found in litereture.
1

103
113


Akin
Akinshilo
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria
Iran
gsobamowo@unilag.edu.ng


Gbeminiyi
Sobamowo
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
Iran
mikegbeminiyi@gmail.com
Perturbation solutions
Magnetohydrodynamics
Blood
Third grade
nanofluid
[[1] Xu, H., Liao, S. J. “Series solutions of unsteady magneto hydrodynamic flows of NonNewtonian fluids caused by impulsive stretching plates,” Journal of Non Newtonian fluid mechanics, 147, pp. 4655, 2005. ##[2] Kumar, P. K., Paul, W., Sharma, C. P. “Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Zinigiberofficinaleextract,” Process Biochemistry, 46, pp. 20072013, 2011. ##[3] Ogulu, A., Amos, E. “Modeling pulsatile blood flow within a homogeneous porous bed in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and time dependent suction,” International communication of Heat Mass Transfer, 34, pp.989995, 2007. ##[4] Ellahi, R., Zeeshan, A. Vafai, K., Rahman, H. U. “Series solutions for magneto hydrodynamic flow of nonNewtonian nanofluid and heat transfer in coaxial porous cylinder with slip condition,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineering Part N, 225, pp.123132, 2011. ##[5] Baoku, I. G., Olajuwon, B. I., A.O. Mustapha, “Heat and mass transfer on a MHD third grade fluid with partial slip flow past an infinite vertical insulated porous plate in a porous medium”, International Journal Heat Fluid Flow, 40, pp.8188, 2013. ##[6] Ellahi, R., “The effect of MHD and temperature dependent viscosity on the flow of nonNewtonian nanofluid in a pipe, analytical solutions,” Applied Mathematical model, 37, pp.14511467, 2013. ##[7] Sheikholeslami, M. Hatamiand, M. Ganji, D. D. “Analytical investigation of MHD nanofluid in a semi porous channel, Powder Technology, 246, pp. 327336, 2013. ##[8] Hatami, M., Hatami J., Ganji, D. D. “Computer simulation of MHD blood conveying gold nanoparticles as a third grade nonNewtonian nanofluid in a hollow porous vessel,” Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 113, pp. 632641, 2014. ##[9] Ogunmola, B. Y., Akinshilo, A. T., Sobamowo, M. G. “Perturbation solutions for HagenPoiseuille flow and heat transfer of third grade fluid with temperaturedependent viscosities and internal heat generation,” International Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2016, 8915745, 2016. ##[10] Fosdick, R. L., Rajagopal, K.R. “Thermodynamics and stability of fluids of third grade,” Procter Society London, Vol.339, pp.351377, 1980.##]
Analytical Investigations of the Effects of Tool Pin Profile and Process Parameters on the Peak Temperature in Friction Stir Welding
2
2
In this work, effects of different tool pin profiles of flat and tapered shoulder geometries on the peak temperature in friction stir welding are investigated analytically. The developed models used for the analytical investigations considered the welding process as a combination or mixture of the pure sliding and the pure sticking. From the results, the amount of heat generation and the peak temperature are directly proportional to the number of edges in the pin profiles in such a way that the heat generated and peak temperature in the profiles increases from the triangular pin profile to hexagonal pin profile. Also, the rate of heat generation and the peak temperature in flat shoulder are greater than in tapered/conical shoulder. The results in this work are validated with experimental and the past theoretical results and good agreements are achieved.
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114
124


M
Waheed
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,
Iran
lawrence@unilag.edu.ng


Lawrence
Jayesimi
University of Lagos
University of Lagos
Iran
ljayesimi@unilag.edu.ng


S. O.
Ismail
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal
Iran


O
Dairo
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,
Iran
udairo@yahoo.co.uk
Frictional stir welding
Peak temperature
Different tool pin Profiles
Analytical investigations
[[1] Chao, Y. J., Qi, X. Tang, W. Heat transfer in friction stir welding: experimental and numerical studies, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125, 138–145, 2003. ##[2] Frigaard, O., Grong, O., Midling, O. T. A process model for friction stir welding of age hardening aluminium alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 32, 1189–1200, 2001. ##[3] Russell, M. J., Shercliff, H. R., 1st Int. Symp. on Friction Stir Welding, Thousand Oaks, California, USA,1999. ##[4] Gadakh, V. S., Kumar, A., Patil, J.V. Analytical Modeling of the Friction Stir Welding Process using Different Pin Profiles. Welding Research, 94(4), 115124, 2015. ##[5] Colegrove, P.A., Shercliff, H.R., Zettler, R. A model for predicting the heat generation and temperature in friction stir welding from the material properties. Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 12, 284–297, 2007. ##[6] Raouche, E., Driss, Z., Guidara, M., Khalfallah, F. Effects of the tool geometries on the thermal analysis of the friction stir welding. International Journal of Mechanics and Applications, 6(1), 17, 2016. ##[7] Emamikhah, A. Abbasi, A., Lirabi, I., Feghhi, Amir, Atefat, A. The role of tool pin profile and temperature on friction stir welding of high zinc brass. Advanced Material Research, 685, 264268, 2013. ##[8] Ramanjaneyulu, K., Reddy, M., Rao, V., Markandeya, R. StructureProperty Correlation of AA2014 Friction Stir Welds: Role of Tool Pin Profile. JMEPEG, 22, 22242240, 2013. ##[9] Juárez, J.C.V., Almaraz, G.M.D, Hernández, R.G., López, J. J. V. Effects of Modified Pin Profile and Process Paramters on the Friction Stir Welding of Aluiminium Alloy 6061T6. Advances in Material Science and Engineering, Vol 2016, 7567940, 9pages. ##[10] Yatapu, Y. R., Reddy, B. R., Ramaraju, R. V., Ku, M. F. B. C., Ibrahim, A. B. Prediction of Temeperatures during Friction Stir Welding of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy using Ayperworks. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(18), 1100311008, 2016 ##[11] Patil, M. S., Msatud, S. A. Simulation and Calculation of Peak Temperature in Friction Stir Welding Process of Aluminium Plates. International Journal of Science Technology and Enginering, 2(1), 612, 2015. ##[12] Patel, J. B., Patil, H. S. Simulation of Peak Temperature and Flow Stress during FSW of Aluminium Alloy AA6061 for various Tool Pin Profiles. International Journal of Material Science and Engineering, 2(1), 6771, 2014. ##[13] Manvatur, V., De, A., Svensson, LE, T. DebRoy. Cooling Rates and Peak Temperatures during Friction Stir Welding of HighCarbon Steel. Scripta Materialia, 94, 3639, 2015. ##[14] Hamilton, C., Dymek, S., Sommers, A. A Thermal Model of Friction Stir Welding in Aluminium Alloys. Int. Journal of Machine Tools Manuf., 48, 11201130, 2008. ##[15] Essa, A. R. S., Ahmed, M. M. Z., Mohamed, A. Y. A., ElNikhaily, A. E. An Analytical Model of Heat Generation for Eccentric Cylindrical Pin in Friction Stir Welding. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 5(3), 234240, 2016. ##[16] Waheed, M.A., Jayesimi, L.O., Ismail, S.O., Dairo, O.U. Modeling of Heat Generations for Different Tool Profiles in Friction Stir Welding: Study of Tool Geometry and Contact Conditions. Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics. 3(1), 3759, 2017. ##[17] Arora, A., Nandan, R., Reynolds, A.P., Debroy, T. Torque, power requirement and stir zone geometry in friction stir welding through modeling and experiments. Scripta Mater, 60, 13–16, 2009. ##[18] ElTayeb, N.S.M., Low, K.O., Brevern, P.V. On the surface and tribological characteristics of burnished cylindrical Al6061. Tribol. Int., 42, 320–326, 2009. ##[19] Devaraju, A., Kumar, A., Kotiveerachari, B. Influence of addition of Grp/Al2O3p with SiCp on wear properties of aluminum alloy 6061T6 hybrid composites via friction stir processing. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China, 23, 1275–1280, 2013. ##[20] Sheppard, T., Wright, D. Determination of flow stress. Part 1 constitutive equation for aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures, Met. Technol., 6, 215–223, 1979. ##[21] Sheppard, T., Jackson, A. Constitutive equations for use in prediction of flow stress during extrusion of aluminium alloys, Materials Science and Technology, 13(3), 203–209, 1997. ##[22] Uyyuru, R.K., Kallas, S.V. Numerical analysis of friction stirs welding process. J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 15, 505–18, 2006. ##[23] Colegrove, P.A., Shercliff, H.R. CFD Modelling of the friction stir welding of thick Plate 7449 aluminium alloy. Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 11 (4), 429–441, 2006. ##[24] Wang, H., Colegrove, P.A., Dos Santos, J.F. Numerical investigation of the tool contact condition during friction stir welding of aerospace aluminium alloy. Comput Mater Sci., 7, 101–108, 2013. ##[25] Su, H., Wu, C., Chen, M. Analysis of material flow and heat transfer in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. China Weld (Engl Ed), 22, 6–10, 2013. ##[26] Sobamowo, M. G. New models for the prediction of temperaturestrain dependent flow stress during machining and fabrication of material. Report on Improved models for flow stress predictions. Unpublished Work, 2016. ##[27] Schmidt, H., Hattel, J., Wert, J. An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding. Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 12, 143–157, 2004. ##[28] Khandkar, M. Z. H., Khan, J. A., Reynolds, A. P. Prediction to temperature distribution and thermal history during friction stir welding: Input torque based model. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 8, 165–174, 2003. ##[29] Qian, J. Li, J. Sun, F., Xiong, J. Zhang, F., Lin, X. An analytical model to optimize rotation speed and travel speed of friction stir welding for defectfree joints. Scriptia Materialia, 68, 175178, 2013. ##[30] Roy, G. G., Nandan, R. and DebRoy, T. Dimensionless correlation to estimate peak temperature during friction stir welding. Sci Technol Weld Join, 11, 606–608, 2006. ##[31] Lombard, H., Hattingh, D. G., Steuwer, A. and James, M. N. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083H321 friction stir welds. Mater Sci Eng A. 501(12), 119124, 2009.##]
Electromechanical Performance of NEMS Actuator Fabricated from Nanowire under quantum vacuum fluctuations using GDQ and MVIM
2
2
The Casimir attraction can significantly interfere the physical response of nanoactuators. The intensity of the Casimir force depends on the geometries of interacting bodies. The present paper is dedicated to model the influence of the Casimir attraction on the electrostatic stability of nanoactuators made of cylindrical conductive nanowire/nanotube. An asymptotic solution, based on pathintegral approach, is employed to consider the Casimir force. The continuum theory is employed to derive the constitutive equation of the actuator. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by three different approaches. Various perspectives of the issue including comparison with the van der Waals (vdW) force regime, the variation of instability parameters and effect of geometry are addressed.
1

125
134


Fateme
Abadian
Department of Mathematics, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Department of Mathematics, Isfahan (Khorasgan)
Iran
abadian.naeini@yahoo.com


Rahman
Soroush
Department of Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran
Department of Engineering, Lahijan Branch,
Iran
eng.soroush322@yahoo.com


Alireza
Yekrangi
Department of Engineering, Ramsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ramsar, Iran
Department of Engineering, Ramsar Branch,
Iran
alireza_yekrangi@gmail.com
Nanowire/Nanotube fabricated actuator
Casimir attraction
Continuum model
Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ)
Modified Variation Iteration Method (MVIM)
[[1] Ghalambaz, M., Ghalambaz, M., Edalatifar, M., "Buckling Analysis of Cantilever Nanoactuators Immersed in an Electrolyte: A Close Form Solution Using DuanRach Modified Adomian Decomposition Method", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 1(4), pp. 207219, 2015. ##[2] Mokhtari, J., Farrokhabadi, A., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical modeling of the effect of Casimir attraction on the electrostatic instability of nanowirefabricated actuators”, Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 68, pp. 149158, 2015. ##[3] Farrokhabadi, A., Mokhtari, J., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Modeling the influence of the Casimir force on the pullin instability of nanowirefabricated nanotweezers”, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 29, 2, pp. 1450245, 2015. ##[4] Farrokhabadi, A., Mokhtari, J., Koochi, A., and Abadyan, M., “A theoretical model for investigating the effect of vacuum fluctuations on the electromechanical stability of nanotweezers”, Indian Journal of Physics, 89, 6, pp. 599609, 2015. ##[5] Keivani, M., Gheisari, R., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., Mokhtari, J., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Effect of the centrifugal force on the electromechanical instability of Ushaped and doublesided sensors made of cylindrical nanowires”, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 38, 7, pp. 21292148, 2016. ##[6] Keivani, M., Kanani, A., Mardaneh, M. R., Mokhtari, J., Abadyan, N., and Abadyan, M., “Influence of Accelerating Force on the Electromechanical Instability of PaddleType and DoubleSided Sensors Made of Nanowires”, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 8, 1,pp. 1650011, 2016. ##[7] Keivani, M., Khorsandi, J., Mokhtari, J., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., and Abadyan, M., “Pullin instability of paddletype and doublesided NEMS sensors under the accelerating force”, Acta Astronautica, 119, pp.196206, 2016. ##[8] Farjam, N., "Pullin behavior of a biomass sensor based on an electrostatically actuated cantilevered CNT with consideration of rippling effect", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 1(4), pp. 229239, 2015. ##[9] Keivani, M., Mokhtari, J., Kanani, A., Abadian, N., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “A sizedependent model for instability analysis of paddletype and doublesided NEMS measurement sensors in the presence of centrifugal force”, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, justaccepted, 2016. ##[10] Keshtegar, B., Ghaderi, A., ElShafie, A., "Reliability analysis of nanocomposite beamsreinforced by CNTs under buckling forces using the conjugate HLRF", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2(4), pp. 200207, 2016. ##[11] Keivani, M., Abadian, N., Koochi, A., Mokhtari, J., and Abadyan, M., “A 2DOF microstructuredependent model for the coupled torsion/bending instability of rotational nanoscanner”, Applied Physics A, 122, 10, pp. 927, 2016. ##[12] Sedighi, H. M., Keivani, M., and Abadyan, M., “Modified continuum model for stability analysis of asymmetric FGM doublesided NEMS: corrections due to finite conductivity, surface energy and nonlocal effect”, Composites Part B: Engineering,83, pp. 117133, 2015. ##[13] Keivani, M., Mokhtari, J., Abadian, N., Abbasi, M., Koochi, A., and Abadyan, M., “Analysis of Ushaped NEMS in the Presence of Electrostatic, Casimir, and Centrifugal Forces Using Consistent Couple Stress Theory”, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, justaccepted, pp. 112, 2017. ##[14] Sedighi, H. M., Daneshmand, F., and Abadyan, M., “Modified model for instability analysis of symmetric FGM doublesided nanobridge: corrections due to surface layer, finite conductivity and size effect”, Composite Structures,132, pp. 545557, 2015. ##[15] Vakili Tahami, F., Biglari, H., Raminnea, M., "Optimum design of FGXCNTreinforced Reddy pipes conveying fluid subjected to moving load", Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2(4), pp. 243253, 2016. ##[16] MohsenNia, M., Abadian, F., Abadian, N., Dehkordi, K. M., Keivani, M., and Abadyan, M., “Analysis of cantilever NEMS in centrifugalfluidic systems”, International Journal of Modern Physics B,30, 22, pp. 1650148, 2016. ##[17] Koochi, A., Kazemi, A.S., Tadi Beni, Y., Yekrangi, A. and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical study of the effect of Casimir attraction on the pullin behavior of beamtype NEMS using modified Adomian method”, Physica E., 43, 2, pp. 625632, 2010. ##[18] Lin, W. H., and Zhao, Y. P., “Casimir effect on the pullin parameters of nanometer switches”, Microsystem Technologies, 11, pp. 8085. 2005. ##[19] Lin, W. H., and Zhao, Y. P., “Nonlinear behavior for nanoscales electrostatic actuators with Casimir force”, Chaos Solitons Fractals, 23, pp. 17771785, 2005, ##[20] Farrokhabadi, A., Abadian, N., Rach, R., and Abadyan, M., “Theoretical modeling of the Casimir forceinduced instability in freestanding nanowires with circular crosssection”, Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 63, pp. 6780, 2014. ##[21] Farrokhabadi, A., Abadian, N., Kanjouri, F., and Abadyan, M., “Casimir forceinduced instability in freestanding nanotweezers and nanoactuators made of cylindrical nanowires”, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 28, 19, pp. 1450129, 2014. ##[22] Bordag, M., “The Casimir effect for a sphere and a cylinder in front of plane and corrections to the proximity force theorem”,Physical Review D, 73, pp. 125018,2006, ##[23] Emig, T., Jaffe, R.L., Kardar, M. and Scardicchio, A., “Casimir Interaction between a Plate and a Cylinder”, Physical review letters, 96, pp. 080403, 2006, ##[24] Hayt, W.H., Engineering Electromagnetics. 4th edn., McGrawHill, New York, 1981. ##[25] Koochi, A., Farrokhabadi, A., and Abadyan, M., “Modeling the size dependent instability of NEMS sensor/actuator made of nanowire with circular crosssection”, Microsystem Technologies, 21, 2, pp. 355364, 2015. ##[26] Shu, C.H., Differential quadrature and its application in engineering, Springer, London, 1999. ##[27] Israelachvili, J.N., Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Academic Press, London, 1992. ##[28] Ke, C. H., Pugno, N., Peng, B., and Espinosa, H. D., “Experiments and modeling of carbon nanotubebased NEMS devices”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 53, 6, pp. 13141333, 2005. ##[29] Kashyap, K.T., Patil, R.G. and Bull, R.G., “on Young’s modulus of multiwalled carbon nanotubes”, Bulletin of Materials Science, 31, 2, pp. 185187, 2008.##]
Size Effect Impact on the Mechanical Behavior of an Electrically Actuated Polysilicon Nanobeam based NEMS Resonator
2
2
In this paper, the dynamic response of resonating nanobeams is investigated using a strain gradient elasticity theory. A nonlinear model is obtained based on the Galerkin decomposition method to find the dynamic response of the investigated beam around its statically deflected position. The midplane stretching, axial residual stress and nonlinear interaction due to the electrostatic force on the deflected beam are included in the proposed nonlinear beam model. Comparing the beam natural frequency using strain gradient theory with experimental data shows an excellent agreement among both approaches. The normalized natural frequency is shown to be increasing nonlinearly with the decrease of the applied DC voltage as well as beam thickness. The results also reveal that increasing the tension axial stress increases the natural frequency; however its influence decreases when decreasing the beam thickness. To investigate the effect of AC actuation voltage on the beam resonant frequency, a LindstedtPoincare based perturbation method is utilized and validated by comparison with experimental data. The results show that increasing the AC actuation voltage makes the beam stiffer by increasing its resonant frequency.
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135
143


Ehsan
Maani Miandoab
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of
Iran
e.maani@ut.ac.ir


Hossein
Nejat Pishkenari
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics
Iran
nejat@sharif.edu


Aghil
YousefiKoma
School of Engineering Science, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Engineering Science, College of
Iran
aykoma@ut.ac.ir


Farid
Tajaddodianfar
Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas
750803021, USA
Mechanical Engineering Department, College
Iran
farid_tajaddodianfar@gmail.com


Hassen
Ouakad
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 31261, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King
Iran
houakad@kfupm.edu.sa
NEMS
Nanoresonator
Strain gradient elasticity theory
Size effect
[1. Braghin, F., et al., Nonlinear dynamics of vibrating MEMS. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2007. 134(1): p. 98108. ##2. Mestrom, R., et al., Modelling the dynamics of a MEMS resonator: Simulations and experiments. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2008. 142(1): p. 306315. ##3. Fu, Y., J. Zhang, and L. Wan, Application of the energy balance method to a nonlinear oscillator arising in the microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Current Applied Physics, 2011. 11(3): p. 482485. ##4. Chaterjee, S. and G. Pohit, Dynamics of nonlinearly damped microcantilevers under electrostatic excitation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2013. 227(3): p. 630646. ##5. Abbas, I.A., Exact Solution of Thermoelastic Damping and Frequency Shifts in a NanoBeam Resonator. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2014: p. 1450082. ##6. AbdelRahman, E.M., M.I. Younis, and A.H. Nayfeh, Characterization of the mechanical behavior of an electrically actuated microbeam. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2002. 12(6): p. 759. ##7. Kuang, J.H. and C.J. Chen, Dynamic characteristics of shaped microactuators solved using the differential quadrature method. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 2004. 14(4): p. 647. ##8. Moghimi Zand, M. and M. Ahmadian, Characterization of coupleddomain multilayer microplates in pullin phenomenon, vibrations and dynamics. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2007. 49(11): p. 12261237. ##9. Moghimi Zand, M. and M. Ahmadian, Vibrational analysis of electrostatically actuated microstructures considering nonlinear effects. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 2009. 14: p. 16641678. ##10. Younis, M. and A. Nayfeh, A study of the nonlinear response of a resonant microbeam to an electric actuation. Nonlinear Dynamics, 2003. 31(1): p. 91117. ##11. Moghimi Zand, M. and M.T. Ahmadian, Application of homotopy analysis method in studying dynamic pullin instability of microsystems. Mechanics Research Communications, 2009. 36(7): p. 851858. ##12. Namazu, T., Y. Isono, and T. Tanaka, Evaluation of size effect on mechanical properties of single crystal silicon by nanoscale bending test using AFM. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, 2000. 9(4): p. 450459. ##13. Stölken, J. and A. Evans, A microbend test method for measuring the plasticity length scale. Acta Materialia, 1998. 46(14): p. 51095115. ##14. Fu, Y., J. Zhang, and Y. Jiang, Influences of the surface energies on the nonlinear static and dynamic behaviors of nanobeams. Physica E: Lowdimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 2010. 42(9): p. 22682273. ##15. Kong, S., et al., The sizedependent natural frequency of Bernoulli–Euler microbeams. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2008. 46(5): p. 427437. ##16. 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Wang,(International Journal of Engineering Science, 47, 487–498, 2009). International Journal of Engineering Science, 2012. 50(1): p. 279281. ##25. Miandoab, E.M., H.N. Pishkenari, and A. YousefiKoma, Dynamic analysis of electrostatically actuated nanobeam based on strain gradient theory. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2015. 15(04): p. 1450059. ##26. Miandoab, E.M., A. YousefiKoma, and H.N. Pishkenari, Poly silicon nanobeam model based on strain gradient theory. Mechanics Research Communications, 2014. 62: p. 8388. ##27. Tilmans, H.A. and R. Legtenberg, Electrostatically driven vacuumencapsulated polysilicon resonators: Part II. Theory and performance. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 1994. 45(1): p. 6784. ##28. Nayfeh, A.H., Introduction to perturbation techniques2011: WileyVCH. ##29. Nayfeh, A.H. and D.T. Mook, Nonlinear oscillations2008: WileyVCH.##]
Performance Analysis of Segmentation of Hyperspectral Images Based on Color Image Segmentation
2
2
Image segmentation is a fundamental approach in the field of image processing and based on user’s application .This paper propose an original and simple segmentation strategy based on the EM approach that resolves many informatics problems about hyperspectral images which are observed by airborne sensors. In a first step, to simplify the input color textured image into a color image without texture. The final segmentation is simply achieved by a spatially color segmentation using feature vector with the set of color values contained around the pixel to be classified with some mathematical equations. The spatial constraint allows taking into account the inherent spatial relationships of any image and its color. This approach provides effective PSNR for the segmented image. These results have the better performance as the segmented images are compared with Watershed & Region Growing Algorithm and provide effective segmentation for the Spectral Images & Medical Images.
1

144
149


Praveen
Agarwal
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department
Iran
praveenagarwal@poornima.org


Shilpi
Jain
Poorima College of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Poorima College of Engineering, Department
Iran
shilpi.jain@poornima.org


Ruchika
Garg
MIT, Department of Electronics & communication Engineering, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
MIT, Department of Electronics & communication
Iran
ruchika09@rediffmail.com
Segmentation
Hyperspectral
EM
[[1] Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., Digital Image Processing, Pearson Education 2nd Edition Asia, ISBN: 0201180758, 2002. ##[2] Mohan, A., Sapiro, G., Bosch, E., Spatially Coherent Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Segmentation of Hyperspectral Images, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4, No. 2, 206210, 2007. ##[3] Özlem, N., Subakan, B., Vemuri C., A Quaternion Framework for Color Image Smoothing and Segmentation, Int. J. Comput. Vis., Vol. 91, 233250, 2011, DOI 10.1007/s1126301003889. ##[4] Mahjoub, M.A., Kalti, K., Image segmentation by adaptive distance based on EM algorithm, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Special Issue, 1925, 2011.##]
Thermodynamic Study of Water Activity of Single Strong Electrolytes
2
2
Today, due to the natural decline of oil exploitation, the use of methods of oil recovery, has made significant progress. However, these methods are accompanied by accumulation and deposition of mineral deposits in oil field installations. In the present study, aqueous solutions, strontium sulfate, barium sulfate, manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate are studied, in terms of EUNIQUAC model and genetic algorithms. Based on the findings of this article, as temperature increases, in order to increase the solubility of the system, the ionic strength decreases; but with increasing pressure, the solubility of barium sulfate increases. Meanwhile, in this article, to evaluate water activity, aqueous solutions of manganese sulfate and nickel sulfate is studied.
1

150
157


Seyed Hossein
Hashemi
Graduate Msc Chemical Engineering, The nuclear martyrs Technologies Incubator ,Shiraz,Iran
Graduate Msc Chemical Engineering, The nuclear
Iran
hosseinhashmei@gmail.com
Mineral Ions
Ionic Strength
Water Activity
EUNIQUAC Model
[[1] Hashemi, S. H. Mirzayi, B., Mousavib D.A., Din Mohammed, M.Study the process of the formation of mineral deposits on the surface and subsurface facilities oil fields, The first international conference on oil, gas and petrochemical sustainable development approach (communication with industry University), Tehran, 1393. ##[2] Moghadasi, J., Jamialahmadi, M., MullerSteinhagen, H., Sharif, A. Scale Formation in Oil Reservoir and Production Equipment during Water Injection (Kinetics of CaCO4 and CaCO3 Crystal Growth and Effect on Formation Damage), The SPE European Formation Damage Conference SPE 82233, 112. 2003. ##[3] Bedrikovestsky, P., Lopes, R., Rosario, F., Bezerra, M., Lima,, E. Oilfield Scaling Part I: mathematical and Laboratory Modeling, Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering conference, PortofSpain, Trinidad, West India, SPE 81127, 2003. ##[4] Ahmed, J. Laboratory Study on Precipitation of Calcium Sulphate in Berea Sand Stone Cores, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, M.E., 2004. ##[5] Fan, C., Kan, A., Zhang, P. Quantitative Evaluation of Calcium Sulfate, SPE J., 17(2), 379392, 2012. ##[6] Haghtalab, A., KamaliM, J., Shahrabadi, A. Prediction mineral scale formation in oil reservoirs during water injection, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 373, 43–54, 2014. ##[7] Safari, H., Shokrollahi, A., Moslemizadeh, A., Jamialahmadi, M., Ghazanfari, M.H. Predicting the solubility of SrSO4in Na–Ca–Mg–Sr–Cl–SO4–H2Osystem at elevated temperatures and pressure, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 374, 86101, 2014. ##[8] Wang, W., Zeng, D., Chen, Q., Yin, X. Experimental determination and modeling of gypsum and insoluble anhydrite solubility in the systemCaSO4–H2SO4–H2O, Chemical Engineering Science, 101, 120129, 2013. ##[9] Thomsen, K., Rasmussen, P. Modeling of vaporliquidsolid equilibrium in gasaqueous electrolytesystems, Chemical Engineering Science, 54, 17871802, 1999. ##[10] Abrams, D., Prausnitz, J. Statistical Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures: A New Expression for the Excess Gibbs Energy of Partly or Completely Miscible Systems, AIChE Journal, 21(1), 116128, 1975. ##[11] Sander, B., Rasmussen, P., Fredenslund, A. Calculation of solidliquid equilibria in aqueous solutionsof nitrate salts using an extended UNIQUAC equation, Chemical Engineering Science, 41, 11971202, 1986. ##[12] Garcia, A., Thomsen, K., Stenby, E. Prediction of mineral scale formation in geothermal and oilfield operations using the extended UNIQUAC model Part I. Sulfate scaling minerals, Geothermics, 34, 6197, 2005. ##[13] Wagman, D., Evans, W., Parker, V., Schumm, R., Halow, I., Bailey, S. The NBS Tables of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties: Selected Values for Inorganic and C1 and C2 Organic Substances in SI Units, Chem. Ref. Data, 11(2), 29, 1982. ##[14] Lyashchenko, A.K., Churagulov, B.R. Influence of pressure on the temperature coefficients of the solubility of electrolytes in water, Russ. J. Inorg. Chem., 26, 642644, 1981. ##[15] Howell, R.D., Raju, K., Atkinson, G., Thermodynamics of "Scale" mineral solubilities 4. SrSO4, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 37, 464469, 1992. ##[16] Robinson, R. A., Stokes, R. H. Eletrolyte Solutions, 2nd ed., 5th Revised Impression, Butterworth, London, 1970. ##[17] Yang, H. T., Zeng, D. W., Voigt, W., Hefter, G., Liu, S. J., Chen, Q. Y. Isopiestic measurements on aqueous solutions of heavy metal sulfates: MSO4+H2O (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn). 1. T = 323.15 K., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 59, 97102, 2014.##]