Experimental Study on the Surface Modification by Electrical Discharge Process

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol. 47148 -71167, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


The creation of modified layer on metal surfaces using new methods is one of the procedures in surface engineering which can improve the surface mechanical properties. The electrical discharge process is a new method that can form a modified layer on the metal surfaces. This study aims to improve of pure aluminum surface properties through Electrical Discharge process with Monel 400 electrode. In order to design the experiments, the pulse on time and the pulse current were considered as input parameters. The SEM images indicated that the increase in the pulse on time and the pulse current can increase the thickness of the modified layer. Based on the obtained results, the thickness of improved layer varied between 35 to 75 microns. The results of the EDX analysis showed the diffusion of the copper and nickel to the aluminum surface. Moreover, the results of microhardness testing of the surface layer showed that after Electrical discharge process, the surface hardness has increased and the surface hardness as 35 Vickers has reached more than 400 Vickers.


Main Subjects

[1] Goswami A., Umashankar R., Gupta A.K., Aravindan S., Rao P.V., Development of a microstructured surface using the FIB. Journal of Micromanufacturing, (2018) 1-9, doi: 10.1177/2516598418765357, in press.

[2] Casas B., Lousa A., Calderon J., Anglada M., Esteve J., Llanes L., Mechanical strength improvement of electrical discharge machined cemented carbides through PVD (TiN, TiAlN) coatings. Thin Solid Films, 447 (2004) 258-263.

[3] Soni G.S., Chakraverti G., Surface characteristics of titanium with rotary EDM. Bulletin of Materials Science, 16(3) (1993) 213-227.

[4] Simao J., Lee H.G., Aspinwall D.K., Dewes R.C., Aspinwall E.M., Workpiece surface modification using electrical discharge machining. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 43(2) (2003) 121-128.

[5] Bleys Ph., Kruth J.P., Lauwers B., Schacht B., Surface and sub-surface quality of steel after EDM. Advanced Engineering Materials, 8(1) (2006) 15-25.

[6] Tiwary A.P., Pradhan B.B., Bhattacharyya B., Application of multi-criteria decision making methods for selection of micro-EDM process parameters. Advances in Manufacturing, 2 (2014) 251–258.

[7] Babu R.T., Gopala K.A., Simultaneous optimization of multiple performance characteristics in WEDM for machining ZC63/SiCp MMC. Advances in Manufacturing, 1 (2013) 265–275.

[8] Kumar S., Batra U., Surface modification of die steel materials by EDM method using tungsten powder-mixed dielectric. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 14(1) (2012) 35-40.

[9] Mir M.J., Sheikh Kh., Singh B., Malhotra N., Modeling and analysis of machining parameters for surface roughness in powder mixed EDM using RSM approach. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 4(3) (2012) 45-52.

[10] Khedkar N.K., Singh T.P., Jatti V.S., Material migration and surface improvement of OHNS die steel material by EDM method using tungsten powder-mixed dielectric. WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, 9(1) (2014) 161-166.

[11] Khanra A.K., Patra S., Godkhindi M.M., Electrical discharge machining studies on reactive sintered FeAl. Bulletin of Materials Science, 29(3) (2006) 227-280.

[12] Davim  J.P., Surface Integrity In Machining, Springer, Germany, 2010.

[13] Eubank Ph.T., Patel M.R., Barrufet M.A., Theoretical Models of the Electrical Discharge Machining process (I) A Simple Cathode Erosion Model. Journal of Applied Physics, 66(9) (1989) 4095-4103.

[14] Yan B., Lin H., Huang F.Y., Wang Ch., Surface modification of SKD 61 during EDM with metal powder in dielctric. Materials Transactions, 42(12) (2011) 2597-2604.

[15] Chavan J., Mhamunkar M., Literature review on optimization of Powder Mix Electrical Discharge Machining. International Journal on Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, 4(1) (2016) 93-96.

[16] Laad, M., Jatti, V.S., Jadhav P.P., Investigation into application of electrical discharge machining as a surface treatment process. WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, 9 (2014) 245-251.