On the Use of Acoustic Emission and Digital Image Correlation for Welded Joints Damage Characterization

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Iraqi Ministry of Electricity, General Directorate of Electrical Energy production, Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

2 Department of Materials Engineering, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

3 School of Engineering, Cardiff University, The Parade, CF24 3AA, Cardiff, UK


A series of tests have been conducted to investigate fatigue damage characterization in corroded welded steel plates using structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique with potential applications for locating and monitoring fatigue cracks in service. In the present work, AE is implemented to characterize damage during crack evolution. It is considered to be based on the relationship between RA value (the rise time divided by the amplitude) and the average frequency of the recorded data. Results are confirmed by visual observation of the crack geometry at the end of the test and by Digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. It is seen that the obtained results allow a better understanding of such damage mechanisms, and enabling an early warning against final failure. Thus, ensuring the safety and integrity of the structures is feasible.


Main Subjects

[1] Shrama, K., Clarke, A., Pullin, R., Evans, S.L., Detection of Cracking in Mild Steel Fatigue Specimens Using Acoustic Emission and Digital Image Correlation. The 31st Conference of the European Working Group on Acoustic Emission (EWGAE), Dresden, We.4. B.2, 2014.

[2] Al-Jumaili, S. K., Holford, K. M., Eaton, M. J., McCrory, J. P., Pearson, M. R., Pullin, R., Classification of acoustic emission data from buckling test of carbon fibre panel using unsupervised clustering techniques, Structural Health Monitoring, 14(3) (2015) 241-251.

[3] Miller, R. K., McIntire, P., Acoustic Emission Testing. NDT Handbook. American Society for Non-destructive Testing, 2005.

[4] Behnia, A., Chai, H. K., Shiotani, T., Advanced structural health monitoring of concrete structures with the aid of acoustic emission. Construction and Building Materials, 65 (2014) 282-302.

[5] Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna, G., Accornero, F., Mpalaskas, A.C., Matikas, T.E., Aggelis, D.G., Influence of damage in the acoustic emission parameters. Cement and Concrete Composites, 44 (2013) 9-16.

[6] TC212-ACD, R.I.L.E.M., acoustic emission and related NDE techniques for crack detection and damage evaluation in concrete. Materials and Structures, 43 (2010) 1183-1186.

[7] Ohno, K. and Ohtsu, M., Crack classification in concrete based on acoustic emission. Construction and Building Materials, 24(12) (2010) 2339-2346.

[8] Shahidan, S., Pulin, R., Bunnori, N.M., Holford, K.M., Damage classification in reinforced concrete beam by acoustic emission signal analysis. Construction and Building Materials, 45 (2013) 78-86.

[9] Elfergani, H.A., Pullin, R. and Holford, K.M., Damage assessment of corrosion in prestressed concrete by acoustic emission. Construction and Building Materials, 40 (2013) 925-933.

[10] Kordatos, E. Z., Aggelis, D. G., Matikas, T. E. Monitoring mechanical damage in structural materials using complimentary NDE techniques based on thermography and acoustic emission. Composites Part B: Engineering, 43(6) (2012) 2676-2686.

[11] Aggelis, D. G. Classification of cracking mode in concrete by acoustic emission parameters. Mechanics Research Communications, 38(3) (2011) 153-157.

[12] McCrory, J., Al-Jumaili, S. K., Pearson, M., Eaton, M., Holford, K., Pullin, R., Automated corrected MAR calculation for characterisation of AE signals. The 31st Conference of the European Working Group on Acoustic Emission (EWGAE), Dresden, Germany, 2014.

[13] Al-Jumaili, S.K., Eaton, M.J., Holford, K.M., McCrory, J., Pullin, R., Damage Characterisation in Composite Materials under Buckling Test Using Acoustic Emission Waveform Clustering Technique. The 53rd Annual Conference of the British Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, UK, 2014.

[14] McCrory, J. P., Al-Jumaili, S. K., Crivelli, D., Pearson, M. R., Eaton, M. J., Featherston, C. A., Guagliano, M., Holford, K. M., Pullin, R., Damage classification in carbon fibre composites using acoustic emission: A comparison of three techniques. Composites Part B: Engineering, 68 (2015) 424-430.

[15] Crivelli, D., Guagliano, M., Eaton, M., Pearson, M., Al-Jumaili, S., Holford, K., Pullin, R., Localisation and identification of fatigue matrix cracking and delamination in a carbon fibre panel by acoustic emission. Composites Part B: Engineering, 74 (2015) 1-12.

[16] Aggelis, D.G., Kordatos, E.Z. and Matikas, T.E., Acoustic emission for fatigue damage characterization in metal plates. Mechanics Research Communications, 38(2) (2011) 106-110.

[17] Aggelis, D.G., Verbruggen, S., Tsangouri, E., Tysmans, T., Van Hemelrijck, D., Characterization of mechanical performance of concrete beams with external reinforcement by acoustic emission and digital image correlation. Construction and Building Materials, 47 (2013) 1037-1045.

[18] Pullin, R., Eaton, M.J., Hensman, J.J., Holford, K.M., Worden, K. and Evans, S.L., Validation of Acoustic Emission (AE) Crack Detection in Aerospace Grade Steel Using Digital Image Correlation. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 24 (2010) 221-226.

[19] Pullin, R., Clarke, A., Eaton, M.J., Holford, K.M., Evans, S.L., McCory, J.P., Detection of cracking in gear teeth using Acoustic Emission. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 24-25 (2010) 45-50.

[20] Kovac, J., Alaux, C., Marrow, T.J., Govekar, E., Legat, A., Correlations of electrochemical noise, acoustic emission and complementary monitoring techniques during intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel. Corrosion Science, 52(6) (2010) 2015-2025.

[21] SAEJ2332 Cosmetic corrosion Lab test SAE J2332. The Engineering Society for Advance Mobility Land Sea and Space 1998-06 2002.

[22] Hsu, N. N., Breckenridge, F. R., Characterization and Calibration of Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials Evaluation, 39(1) (1981) 60-68.

[23] ASTME976 Standard guide for determining the reproducibility of acoustic emission sensor response. American Society for Testing and Materials 2001.

[24] Baxter, M., Damage Assessment by Acoustic Emission (AE) During Landing Gear Fatigue Testing, Ph.D. Thesis, School of Engineering, University of Wales Cardiff, Cardiff, UK, 2007.

[25] Al-Jumaili, S.K., Pearson, M.R., Holford, K.M., Eaton, M.J. and Pullin, R., Acoustic emission source location in complex structures using full automatic delta T mapping technique. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 72 (2016) 513-524.

[26] Hearn, E.J., Mechanics of materials 1: an introduction to the mechanics of elastic and plastic deformation of solids and structural components. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.