A Review of Recent Studies on Simulations for Flow around High-Speed Trains

Document Type: Review Paper

Authors

1 Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

4 Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Shanghai, China

Abstract

Fluid flow around bluff bodies occurs in numerous fields of science and engineering, such as flows pass vehicles, cables, towers and bridges. These flows have been studied experimentally and numerically for the last several decades. The investigation of flow around high-speed trains is an important application of bluff bodies. Fluid flow, aerodynamic forces and moments, separation and wake region have been studied for the last several decades. This paper brings together a comprehensive review of the research on air flow around high-speed trains and their impacts.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] General Definitions of High speed. International Union of Railways (UIC). Retrieved 20 November 2015.

[2] "China's high speed railway exceeds 20,000 km". China Daily. 10 Sep 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-06.

[3] Baker, C.J. Train Aerodynamic Forces and Moments from Moving Model Experiments. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,24 (1986) 227-251.

[4] Brockie, N.J.W. and Baker, C.J. The Aerodynamic Drag of High Speed Trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 34 (1990) 273-290.

[5] Baker, C.J. and Brockie, N.J. Wind tunnel tests to obtain train aerodynamic drag coefficients: Reynolds number and ground simulation effects. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,38 (1991) 23-28.

[6] Watkins, S. Saunders, J.W. and Kumar, H. Aerodynamic drag reduction of goods trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,40 (1992) 47-178.

[7] Willemsen, E. High Reynolds number wind tunnel experiments on trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 69 71 (1997) 437-447.

[8] Kwon, H.B. Park, Y.W. Lee, D.H. and Kim, M.S. Wind tunnel experiments on Korean high-speed trains using various ground simulation techniques. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 89 (2001) 1179–1195.

[9] Auvity, B. Bellenoue M. and Kageyama, T. Experimental study of the unsteady aerodynamic field outside a tunnel during a train entry. Experimental in Fluids, 30 (2001) 221-228.

[10] Matschke, G. and Heine, C. Full Scale Tests on Side Wind Effects on Trains. Evaluation of Aerodynamic Coefficients and Efficiency of Wind Breaking Devices. TRANSAERO - A European Initiative on Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation, (2002) 27-38.

[11] Baker, C.J. The wind tunnel determination of crosswind forces and moments on a high speed train. TRANSAERO - A European Initiative on Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation, (2002) 46-60.

[12] Suzuki, M. Tanemoto, K. and Maeda, T. Aerodynamic characteristics of train/vehicles under cross winds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 91 (2003) 209–218.

[13] Sanquer, S. Barré, C. Dufresne de Virela, M. and Cléon, L. Effect of cross winds on high-speed trains: development of a new experimental methodology. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 92 (2004) 535–545.

[14] Baker, C.J. Jones, J. Lopez-Callejac, F. and Munday, J. Measurements of the cross wind forces on trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 92 (2004) 547–563.

[15] Ricco, P. Baron, A. and Molteni, P. Nature of pressure waves induced by a high-speed train travelling through a tunnel. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95 (2007) 781–808.

[16] Cheli, F. Ripamonti, F. Rocchi, D. and Tomasini, G. Aerodynamic behaviour investigation of the new EMUV250 train to cross wind. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98 (2010) 189–201.

[17] Wang, H. Zhang, X. Peng, W. and Ma, L. Reaserch on Aerodynamic Characteristics of the High-Speed Train under Side Wind. Advanced Research on Computer Science and Information Engineering, (2011) 401-409.

[18] Yang, G.W. Guo, D.L. Yao, S.B. and Liu C.H. Aerodynamic design for China new high-speed trains. Science China Technological Sciences, 55 (2012) 1923–1928.

[19] Gilbert, T. Baker, C. and Quinn, A. Aerodynamic pressures around high-speed trains the transition from unconfined to enclosed spaces. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 227 (2013) 609–622.

[20] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M. Herbst, A. and Sheridan, J. Wind tunnel analysis of the slipstream and wake of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 134 (2014) 122–138.

[21] Soper, D. Baker, C. and Sterling, M. Experimental investigation of the slipstream development around a container freight train using a moving model facility. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 135 (2014) 105–117.

[22] Xia, C. Shan, X. and Yang, Z. Wall interference effect on the aerodynamics of a high-speed train. Procedia Engineering (7th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, ICFM7), 126 (2015) 527– 531.

[23] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M.C. Herbst, A.H. and Sheridan, J. Moving model analysis of the slipstream and wake of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 136 (2015) 127–137.

[24] Kikuchi, K. and Suzuki, M. Study of aerodynamic coefficients used to estimate critical wind speed for vehicle overturning. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 147 (2015) 1–17.

[25] Avadiar, T. Bell, J. Burton, D. Cormaty, H. and Li, C. Analysis of high-speed train flow structures under crosswind. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 30 (2016) 3985-3991.

[26] Lee, Y. Kim, K.H. Rho, J.H. and Kwon, H.B. Investigation on aerodynamic drag of korean high speed train (HEMU-430X) due to roof apparatus for electrical device. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 30 (2016) 1611-1616.

[27] Niu, J. Liang, X. and Zhou, D. Experimental study on the effect of Reynolds number on aerodynamic performance of high-speed train with and without yaw angle. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 157 (2016) 36–46.

[28] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M.C. Herbst, A.H. and Sheridan, J. Flow topology and unsteady features of the wake of a generic high-speed train. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 61 (2016) 168–183.

[29] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M.C. Herbst, A.H. and Sheridan, J. Dynamics of trailing vortices in the wake of a generic high-speed train. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 65 (2016) 238–256.

[30] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M.C. Herbst, A.H. and Sheridan, J. A wind-tunnel methodology for assessing the slipstream of high-speed trains. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 166 (2017) 1–19.

[31] Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Thompson, M.C. Herbst, A.H. and Sheridan, J. The effect of tail geometry on the slipstream and unsteady wake structure of high-speed trains. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, (2017) accepted.

[32] Yang, Q.S. Song, J.H. and Yang, G.W. A moving model rig with a scale ratio of 1/8 for high speed train aerodynamics. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 152 (2016) 50–58.

[33] Niu, J. Zhou, D. and Liang, X. Experimental research on the aerodynamic characteristics of a high-speed train under different turbulence conditions. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 80, 2017, 117-125.

[34] Li, Z.W. Yang, M.Z. Huang, S. and Liang, X. A new method to measure the aerodynamic drag of high-speed trains passing through tunnels. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 171 (2017) 110–120.

[35] Xiang, H. Li, Y. Chen, S. and Li, C. A wind tunnel test method on aerodynamic characteristics of moving vehicles under crosswinds. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 163 (2017) 15–23.

[36] Paradot, N. Talotte, C. Garem, H. Delville, J. and Bonnet, J.P. A Comparison of the Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of the Flow around a High Speed Train. ASME 2002 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting Montreal, Quebec, Canada, July 14-18, (2002).

[37] Khier, W. Breuer M. and Durst, F. Numerical Computation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Around High-Speed Trains Under Side Wind Conditions. TRANSAERO - A European Initiative on Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation, 79 (2002) 75-86.

[38] Fauchier, C. Le Devehat, E. and Gregoire, R. Numerical study of the turbulent flow around the reduced-scale model of an Inter-Regio. TRANSAERO - A European Initiative on Transient Aerodynamics for Railway System Optimisation, 79 (2002) 61-74.

[39] Shin, C.H. and Park, W.G. Numerical study of flow characteristics of the high speed train entering into a tunnel. Mechanics Research Communications, 30 (2003) 287–296.

[40] Tian, H. Formation mechanism of aerodynamic drag of high-speed train and some reduction measures. Journal of Central South University of Technology, 16 (2009) 166–171.

[41] Zhao, J. and Li, R. Numerical Analysis for Aerodynamics of High- Speed Trains Passing Tunnels. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles II: Trucks, Buses, and Trains, 41 (2009) 239-239.

[42] Krajnović, S. Optimization of Aerodynamic Properties of High-Speed Trains with CFD and Response Surface Models. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles II: Trucks, Buses, and Trains, 41(2009) 197-211.

[43] Li, X. Deng, J. Chen, D. Xie, F. and Zheng, Y. Unsteady simulation for a high-speed train entering a tunnel. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A, 12 (2011) 957–963.

[44] Wang, D. Li, W. Zhao, W. and Han, H. Aerodynamic Numerical Simulation for EMU Passing Each Other in Tunnel. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 143-153.

[45] Asress, M.B. and Svorcan, J. Numerical investigation on the aerodynamic characteristics of high-speed train under turbulent crosswind. Journal of Modern Transportation, 22 (2014) 225–234.

[46] Peng, L. Fei, R. Shi, C. Yang, W. and Liu, Y. Numerical Simulation about Train Wind Influence on Personnel Safety in High-Speed Railway Double-Line Tunnel. Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics, 405 (2014) 553-564.

[47] Shuanbao, Y. Dilong, G. Zhenxu, S. Guowei, Y. and Dawei, C. Optimization design for aerodynamic elements of high speed trains. Computers & Fluids, 95 (2014) 56–73.

[48] Chu, C.R. Chien, S.Y. Wang, C.Y. and Wu, T.R. Numerical simulation of two trains intersecting in a tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 42 (2014) 161–174.

[49] Zhang, J. Gao, G. Liu, T. and Li, Z. Crosswind stability of high-speed trains in special cuts. Journal of Central South University, 22 (2015) 2849–2856.

[50] Catanzaro, C. Cheli, F. Rocchi, D. Schito, P. and Tomasini, G. High-Speed Train Crosswind Analysis: CFD Study and Validation withWind-Tunnel Tests. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III, 79 (2016) 99-112.

[51] Ding, S. Li, Q. Tian, A. Du, J. and Liu, J. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 32 (2016) 215–232.

[52] Liu T.H. Su X.C. and Zhang, J. Aerodynamic performance analysis of trains on slope topography under crosswinds. Journal of Central South University, 23 (2016) 2419−2428.

[53] Premoli, A. Rocchi, D. Schito, P. and Tomasini, G. Comparison between steady and moving railway vehicles subjected to crosswind by CFD analysis. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 156 (2016) 29–40.

[54] Smagorinsky, J. General Circulation Experiments with the Primitive Equations. Monthly Weather Review, 91 (1963) 99–164.

[55] Krajnović, S. Ringqvist, P. Nakade, K. and Basara, B. Large eddy simulation of the flow around a simplified train moving through a crosswind flow. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 110 (2012) 86–99.

[56] Zhuang, Y. and Lu, X. Numerical investigation on the aerodynamics of a simplified high-speed train under crosswinds. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 5 (2015) 181–186.

[57] Khayrullina, A. Blocken, B. Janssen, W. and Straathof, J. CFD simulation of train aerodynamics: Train-induced wind conditions at an underground railroad passenger platform. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 139 (2015) 100–110.

[58] Garćia, J. Muñoz-Paniagua, J. and Crespo, A. Numerical study of the aerodynamics of a full scale train under turbulent wind conditions, including surface roughness effects. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 74 (2017) 1–18.

[59] Muld, T.W. Efraimsson, G. and Henningson, D.S. Flow structures around a high-speed train extracted using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Dynamic Mode Decomposition. Computers & Fluids, 57 (2012) 87–97.

[60] Zheng, H. and Yang, G. Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance of High-Speed Train by Detached Eddy Simulation. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 31-39.

[61] Yao, S.B. Sun, Z.X. Guo, D.L. Chen, D.W. and Yang, G.W. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 29 (2013) 811–822.

[62] Miao, X.J. and Gao, G.J. Influence of ribs on train aerodynamic performances. Journal of Central South University, 22 (2015) 1986−1993.

[63] Muld, T.W. Efraimsson, G. Henningson, D.S. Herbst, A.H. and Orellano, A. Analysis of Flow Structures in the Wake of a High-Speed Train. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III, 70 (2016) 3-19.

[64] Zhang, J. Li, J. Tian, H. Gao, G. and Sheridan, J. Impact of ground and wheel boundary conditions on numerical simulation of the high-speed train aerodynamic performance. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 61 (2016) 249–261.

[65] Chen, J. Gao, G. and Zhu, C. Detached-eddy simulation of flow around high-speed train on a bridge under cross winds. Journal of Central South University, 23 (2016) 2735-2746.

[66] Xia, C. Wang, H. Shan, X. Yang, Z. and Li, Q. Effects of ground configurations on the slipstream and near wake of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 168 (2017) 177–189.

[67] Wang, S. Bell, J.R. Burton, D. Herbst, A.H. Sheridan, J. and Thompson, M.C. The performance of different turbulence models (URANS, SAS and DES) for predicting high-speed train slipstream. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 165 (2017) 46–57.

[68] Zhang, J. He, K. Xiong, X. Wang, X. and Gao, G.  Numerical simulation with a DES approach for a high-speed train subjected to the crosswind. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 10 (2017) 1329-1342.

[69] Zhang, J. Wang, J. Wang, Q. Xiong, X. and Gao, G. A study of the influence of bogie cut outs' angles on the aerodynamic performance of a high-speed train. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 175 (2018) 153-168.

[70] Hara, T. Method of Measuring the Aerodynamic Drag of Trains. Bulletin of JSME, 8 (1965) 390-396.

[71] Vernikov, G.I. and Gurevich, M.I. Aerodynamic Pressure on a Wall due to Movement of a High-Speed Train. Fluid Dynamics, 2 (1967) 128-133.

[72] Zakharov, A.G. Kovalev, V.E. and Konovalov, S.F. Fluid Dynamics, 28 (1993) 660-666.

[73] Fuji, K. and Ogawa, T. Aerodynamics of High Speed Trains Passing by each other. Computers & Fluids, 24 (1995) 897-908.

[74] Chiu, T.W. Prediction of the aerodynamic loads on a railway train in a cross-wind at large yaw angles using an integrated two- and three-dimensional source/vortex panel method. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 57 (1995) 19-39.

[75] Le Devehat, E. Gregoire, R. Crespi, P. and Kessler, A.Computation of the 3D turbulent Flow surrounding a high-speed train mock-up including the inter-car gap and the bogie, and comparisons with LDV data. Computation of Three-Dimensional Complex Flows, 49 (1996) 137-143.

[76] Baron, A. Mossi, M. and Sibilla, S. The alleviation of the aerodynamic drag and wave effects of high-speed trains in very long tunnels. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 89 (2001) 365–401.

[77] Wang Y.W. Wang, Y. An, Y.R. and Chen, Y.S. Aerodynamic simulation of high-speed trains based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 51 (2008) 773-783.

[78] Lai, Y.C. Barkan, C.P.L. and Önal, H. Optimizing the aerodynamic efficiency of intermodal freight trains. Transportation Research Part E, 44 (2008) 820–834.

[79] Baker, C. The flow around high speed trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98 (2010) 277–298.

[80] Sun Z.X. Song, J.J. and An Y.R. Optimization of the head shape of the CRH3 high speed train. Science China Technological Sciences, 53 (2010) 3356–3364.

[81] Baker, C.J. The simulation of unsteady aerodynamic cross wind forces on trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98 (2010) 88–99.

[82] Shao, X.M. Wan, J. Chen, D.W. and Xiong, H.B. Aerodynamic modeling and stability analysis of a high-speed train under strong rain and crosswind conditions. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 12 (2011) 964-970.

[83] Wu, M.L. Zhu, Y.Y. Tian, C. and Fei, W.W. Influence of aerodynamic braking on the pressure wave of a crossing high-speed train. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 12 (2011) 979-984,

[84] Gao, Y. Zhao, W. Li, Y. and Chen, B. Optimum Structural Designs for an Equipment Cabin under High-Speed Train Considering Aerodynamic Load. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 199-204.

[85] Yao, S. Guo, D. and Yang, G. Three-dimensional aerodynamic optimization design of high-speed train nose based on GA-GRNN. Science China Technological Sciences, 55 (2012) 3118–3130.

[86] Mei, Y.G. and Zhou, C.H. The One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Prediction Method and Applications on the Pressure Waves Generated by High-Speed Trains Passing through a Tunnel. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 397-405.

[87] Cui, K. Wang, X.P. Hu, S.C. Gao, T.Y. and Yang, G. Shape Optimization of High-Speed Train with the Speed of 500kph. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 187-197.

[88] Liu, C.H. Guo, D. Yao, S. and Yang, G. The Influence of Different Cross-Section Shapes of Train Body on Aerodynamic Performance. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways, 2 (2012) 19-30.

[89] Zhang, Y. Numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic drag on a subsonic train in evacuated tube transportation. Journal of Modern Transportation, 20 (2012) 44-48.

[90] Li, T. Zhang, J. and Zhang, W. A numerical approach to the interaction between airflow and a high-speed train subjected to crosswind. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 14 (2013) 482-493.

[91] Muñoz-Paniagua, J. García, J. and Crespo, A. Genetically aerodynamic optimization of the nose shape of a high-speed train entering a tunnel. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 130 (2014) 48–61.

[92] Li, T. Yu, M. Zhang, J. and Zhang, W. A fast equilibrium state approach to determine interaction between stochastic crosswinds and high-speed trains. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 143 (2015) 91–104.

[93] Tian H.Q. Huang, S. and Yang, M.Z. Flow structure around high-speed train in open air. Journal of Central South University of Technology, 22 (2015) 747−752.

[94] Rabani, M. and Faghih, A.K. Numerical analysis of airflow around a passenger train entering the tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 45 (2015) 203–213.

[95] Li, R. Xu, P. Peng, Y. and Ji, P. Multi-objective optimization of a high-speed train head based on the FFD method. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 152 (2016) 41–49.

[96] Yu, M. Liu, J. Liu, D. Chen, H. and Zhang, J. Investigation of aerodynamic effects on the high-speed train exposed to longitudinal and lateral wind velocities. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 61 (2016) 347–361.

[97] Chen, Z. Liu, T. Zhou, X. and Niu, J. Impact of ambient wind on aerodynamic performance when two trains intersect inside a tunnel. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 169 (2017) 139–155.