Rajeev, S., Krishnamoorthy, C.S., Discrete optimization of structures suing Genetic Algorithm. Journal of Structural Engineering
, 118, 1992, 1233-1250.
 Cao, G., Optimized design of framed structures using a genetic algorithm
. PhD thesis, The University of Memphis, TN, 1996.
 Kennedy, J., Eberhart, R., Particle swarm optimization
. Proceedings of IEEE international conference on neural networks. 1995. p. 1942–48.
 Lee, K.S., Geem, Z.W., A new structural optimization method based on the harmony search algorithm. Computers & Structures
, 82(9–10), 2004, 781–98.
 Dorigo, M., Optimization, learning and natural algorithms
. PhD thesis, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 1992.
 Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., A novel heuristic optimization method: charged system search. Acta Mechanica
, 213, 2010, 267–289.
 Erol, O.K., Eksin, I., A new optimization method: big bang–big crunch. Advances in Engineering Software
, 37, 2006, 106–11.
 Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., Size optimization of space trusses using big bang–big crunch algorithm. Computers & Structures
, 87(17–18), 2009, 1129–40.
 Sonmez, M., Artificial bee colony algorithm for optimization of truss structures. Applied Soft Computing
, 11(2), 2011, 2406–18.
 Li, L.J., Huang, Z.B., Liu, F., Wu, Q.H., A heuristic particle swarm optimizer for optimization of pin connected structures. Computers & Structures
, 85(7–8), 2007, 340–9.
 Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., Hybrid Algorithm of Harmony Search, Particle Swarm and Ant Colony for Structural Design Optimization. Computers & Structures
, 3, 2009, 642-03450.
 Hasancebi, O., Erbatur, F., Layout optimization of trusses using improved GA methodologies. Acta Mechanica
, 146, 2001, 87–107.
 Camp, C.V., Bichon, B.J., Design of space trusses using ant colony optimization. Journal of Structural Engineering
, 130(5), 2004, 741–51.
 Camp, C.V., Design of space trusses using big bang–big crunch optimization. Journal of Structural Engineering
, 133(7), 2007, 999–1008.
 Camp, C.V., Farshchin, M., Design of space trusses using modified teaching–learning based optimization. Engineering Structures
, 62–63, 2014, 87–97.
 Mahfouz, S.Y., Design optimization of structural steelwork
. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom, 1999.
 Barbosa, H.J.C., Lemonge A.C.C., Borges, C.C.H., A genetic algorithm encoding for cardinality constraints and automatic variable linking in structural optimization. Engineering Structures
, 30(12), 2008, 3708–23.
 Wu, S.J., Chow, P.T., Steady-state genetic algorithms for discrete optimization of trusses. Computers & Structures,
56(6), 1995, 97991.
 Lee, K.S., Geem, Z.W., Lee, S.H., Bae, K.W., The harmony search heuristic algorithm for discrete structural optimization. Engineering Optimization
, 37(7), 2005, 663:84.
 Li, L.J., Huang, Z.B., Liu, F., A heuristic particle swarm optimization method for truss structures with discrete variables. Computers and Structures
, 87(78), 2009, 435:43.
 Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S., A particle swarm ant colony optimization for truss structures with discrete variables. Journal of Constructional Steel Research
, 65, 2009, 1558-1568
 Kaveh, A. Talatahari, S., Hybrid Algorithm of Harmony Search, Particle Swarm and Ant Colony for Structural Design Optimization. Studies in Computational Intelligence
, 2009, 159-198.
 Meshki, H., Joghataie, A., Structural optimization by spherical interpolation of objective function and constraints. Scintia Iranica
, 23(2), 2016, 548-557.
 Kaveh, A., Ilchi, M., Computer codes for colloding bodies optimization and its enhanced version. International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering
, 4(3), 2014, 321-339.
 Kaveh, A., Ilchi, M., A new meta-heuristic algorithm: Vibrating particles system. Scientia Iranica
, 24, 2017, 551-566.
 Gandomi, A.H., Alavi, A.H., Krill herd: A new bio-inspired optimization algorithm. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation
, 17, 2012, 4831–4845.
 Mirjalili, S., Lewis, A., The whale optimization algorithm. Advance Engineering Software
, 95, 2016, 51-67.
 Cheng, M-.Y., Prayogo, D., Wu, Y-.W., Marcellinus Lukito, M., A Hybrid Harmony Search algorithm for discrete sizing optimization of truss structure. Automation in Construction
, 69, 2016, 21-33.
 Tuo, S., Yong, L., Deng, F., Li, Y., Lin, Y., Lu, Q., A hybrid algorithm based on Harmony Search and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization for complex high-dimensional optimization problems. Plos One
, 12(4), 2017, 10-1371.
 Ouyang, H.B., Gao, L.Q., Kong, X.Y., Zou, D.X., Li, S., Teaching-learning based optimization with global crossover for global optimization problems. Applied Mathematics and Computation
, 265, 2015, 533–556.
 Kaveh, A., Rahami, H., Analysis, design and optimization of structures using force method and genetic algorithm. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
, 65, 2016, 1570-1584.
 Sadollah, A., Eskandar, H., Bahreininejad, A., Kim, J.H., Water cycle, mine blast and improved mine blast algorithms for discrete sizing optimization of truss structures. Computers & Structures
, 149, 2015, 1-16.
 Mortazavi, A., Toğan, V., Nuhoğlu, A., An integrated particle swarm optimizer for optimization of truss structures with discrete variables. Structural Engineering and Mechanics
, 61, 2017, 359-370.