Dynamic Analysis of the Biomechanical Model of Head Load Impact Using Differential Transform Method

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Systems Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

2 University of Lagos, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3 University of Lagos, Department of Systems Engineering, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria


The dynamic analysis of the biomechanical model of the head load impact using the Differential Transform Method is presented in this paper. In many parts of the world, the problem of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) has led to neurodegenerative dementing disorders and diseases as a result of head load impact from sporting activities, accidents involving the head, etc. have serious effects on humanity. The head load impact and its control have been modeled as a rigid linkage head-neck manipulator. This rigid link manipulator is governed by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential matrix equations with three degrees of freedom which requires special techniques for its solution. The system of equations was solved using Differential Transform Method (DTM) and the results were compared with results obtained in earlier studies and validated with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (RK4). Good agreements are reached in all these results. From the model, the effects of head loads, head mass, neck mass, upper and lower linkage lengths, head and neck moments of inertia were investigated. As the head loads increased, there were increases in both axial and angular displacement of the head motion and the neck region. The study provides a theoretical basis for the design and understanding of the effects of head load carriage on vital organs that are susceptible to pains, damages, and even failure.


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