Effect of Inlet Air Locations on Particle Concentration using ‎Large Eddy Simulation based on Multi Relaxation Time Lattice ‎Boltzmann Method

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, 9453155111, Iran

2 Center for International Scientific Studies and Collaboration, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, USA


In this work, turbulent indoor airflow was considered by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based on Multi Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann Method (MRT-LBM). The Lagrangian approach was utilized to investigate the effect of inlet air location on transport and concentration of different sizes of particles (1-10 µm) in a modeled room. Simulation results showed that for the displacement ventilation system with the inlet air register on the floor, the number of 10µm particles that exit through the outlet is more than the case for the mixing ventilation system with the inlet register on the ceiling. Also, for the latter case, when the inlet air is on the ceiling, the number of suspended 10µm particles in the room is less than for the displacement ventilation system with inlet register on the floor. In addition, the results showed that the location of the inlet air register does not have a considerable effect on the small 1µm particle motion, and the numbers of the particles that remain suspended in the room are roughly the same for both ventilation systems.


Main Subjects

[1]   Sippola, M. R., Nazaroff, W. W., Experiments Measuring Particle Deposition from Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Ventilation Ducts, Aerosol Science and Technology, 38, 2004, 914-925.
[2]   Islam, M. S., Saha, S. C., Gemci, T., Yang, I. A., Sauret, E., Gu, Y. T., Polydisperse Microparticle Transport and Deposition to the Terminal Bronchioles in a Heterogeneous Vasculature Tree, Scientific Reports, 8, 2018, 16387.
[3]   Haghighifard, H. R., Tavakol, M. M., Ahmadi, G., Numerical study of fluid flow and particle dispersion and deposition around two inline buildings, Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 179, 2018, 385–406.
[4]   Ghahramani, E., Abouali, O., Emdad, H., Ahmadi, G. , Numerical analysis of stochastic dispersion of micro-particles in turbulent flows in a realistic model of human nasal/upper airway, Journal of Aerosol Science, 67, 2014, 188–206.
[5]   Li, A., Ahmadi, G. , Bayer, R. G., Gaynes, M. A., Aerosol particle deposition in an obstructed turbulent duct flow, Journal of Aerosol Science, 25, 1994, 91-112.
[6]   Liu, C., Ahmadi, G., Transport and deposition of particles near a building model, Building and Environment, 41, 2006, 828–836.
[7]   Ching, J., Kajino, M., Aerosol mixing state matters for particles deposition in human respiratory system, Scientific Reports, 8, 2018, 8864.
[8]   HOUNAM, R. F., BLACK, A., WALSH, M., Deposition of Aerosol Particles in the Nasopharyngeal Region of the Human Respiratory Tract, Nature, 221, 1969, 1254–1255.
[9]   Nazridoust, K., Ahmadi, G., Airflow and pollutant transport in street canyons, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 94, 2006, 491–522.
[10] Dehghan, M.H., Abdolzadeh, M., Comparison study on air flow and particle dispersion in a typical room with floor, skirt boarding, and radiator heating systems, Building and Environment, 133, 2018, 161-177.
[11] Zhong, K., Yang, X., Kang, Y., Effects of ventilation strategies and source locations on indoor particle deposition, Building and Environment, 45, 2010, 655–662.
[12] Bouilly, J., Limam, K., Beghein, C., Allard, F., Effect of ventilation strategies on particle decay rates indoors: an experimental and modelling study, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 2005, 4885–92.
[13] Kefayati, GH.R., Tang, H., MHD thermosolutal natural convection and entropy generation of Carreau fluid in a heated enclosure with two inner circular cold cylinders, using LBM, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume, 126, 2018, 508-530.
[14] Kefayati, GH.R., Magnetic field effect on heat and mass transfer of mixed convection of shear-thinning fluids in a lid-driven enclosure with non-uniform boundary conditions, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 51, 2015, 20-33.
[15] Sajjadi, H., Kefayati, GH.R., Lattice Boltzmann simulation of turbulent natural convection in tall enclosures, Thermal science, 19, 2015, 155-166.
[16] Sajjadi, H., Kefayati, GH.R., MHD Turbulent and Laminar Natural Convection in a Square Cavity utilizing Lattice Boltzmann Method, Heat Transfer Asian Research, 45, 2016, 795-814.
[17] Jalali, A., Amiri Delouei, A., Khorashadizadeh, M., Golmohamadi, A.M., Karimnejad, S., Mesoscopic Simulation of Forced Convective Heat Transfer of Carreau-Yasuda Fluid Flow over an Inclined Square: Temperature-dependent Viscosity, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 6, 2020, 307-319.
[18] Ashorynejad, H. R., Zarghami, A.,  Magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid through a partially porous wavy channel, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 119, 2018, 247-258.
[19] Sheikholeslami, M., Gorji-Bandpy, M., Domairry, G., Free convection of nanofluid filled enclosure using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 34, 2013, 833–846.
[20] Sheikholeslami, M., Influence of magnetic field on Al2O3-H2O nanofluid forced convection heat transfer in a porous lid driven cavity with hot sphere obstacle by means of LBM, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 263, 2018, 472-488.
[21] Sajjadi, H., Salmanzadeh, M., Ahmadi, G., Jafari, S., Combination of Lattice Boltzmann Method and RANS Approach for Simulation of Turbulent Flows and Particle Transport and Deposition, Particuology, 30, 2017, 62-72.
[22] Benzi, R., Succi, S., Vergassola, M., The lattice Boltzmann equation: theory and applications, Physics Reports, 222, 1992, 145-197.
[23] Chen, S., Doolen, G., Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30, 1998, 329–364.
[24] Lallemand, P., Luo, L., Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: dispersion, dissipation, isotropy, Galilean invariance, and stability, Physical Review E, 61, 2000, 6546–6562.
[25] Ginzburg, I., Equilibrium-type and link-type lattice Boltzmann models for generic advection and anisotropic-dispersion equation, Advances in Water Resources, 28, 2005, 1171–1195.
[26] Chikatamarla, S., Ansumali, S., Karlin, I., Entropic lattice Boltzmann models for hydrodynamics in three dimensions, Physical Review Letters, 97, 2006, 010201.
[27] Luo, L., Liao, W., Chen, X., Peng, Y., Zhang, W., Numerics of the lattice Boltzmann method: effects of collision models on the lattice Boltzmann simulations, Physical Review E, 83 (5), 2011, 056710.
[28] Sajjadi, H., Amiri Delouei, A., Sheikholeslami, M., Atashafrooz, M., Succi, S., Simulation of three dimensional MHD natural convection using double MRT Lattice Boltzmann method, Physica A, 515, 2019, 474–496.
[29] Sajjadi, H., Delouei, A. A., Izadi, M., Mohebbi, R., Investigation of MHD natural convection in a porous media by double MRT lattice Boltzmann method utilizing MWCNT–Fe3O4/water hybrid nanofluid, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 132, 2019, 1087–1104.
[30] Sajjadi, H., Amiri Delouei, A., Atashafrooz, M., Sheikholeslami, M., Double MRT Lattice Boltzmann simulation of 3-D MHD natural convection in a cubic cavity with sinusoidal temperature distribution utilizing nanofluid, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 126, 2018, 489–503.
[31] Chang, T., Hsieh, Y., Kao, H., Numerical investigation of airflow pattern and particulate matter transport in naturally ventilated multi-room buildings, Indoor Air, 16, 2006, 136–52.
[32] Béghein, C., Jiang, Y. and Chen, Q., Using large eddy simulation to study particle motions in a room, Indoor Air, 15, 2005, 281–290.
[33] Zhang, Z., Chen, Q., Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of particle transport and distribution in ventilated rooms, Atmospheric Environmental, 40, 2006, 3396–408.
[34] Zhou, X., Dong, B., Chen, C., Li, W., A thermal LBM-LES model in body-fitted coordinates: Flow and heat transfer around a circular cylinder in a wide Reynolds number range, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 77, 2019, 113-121.
[35] Merlier, L., Jacob, J., Sagaut, P., Lattice-Boltzmann large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion in complex urban environment with dense gas effect: Model evaluation and flow analysis, Building and Environment, 148, 2019, 634-652.
[36] Sajjadi, H., Salmanzadeh, M., Ahmadi, G., Jafari, S., Investigation of particle deposition and dispersion using Hybrid LES/RANS model based on Lattice Boltzmann method, Scientia Iranica, 25(6), 2018, 3173-3182.
[37] H. Sajjadi, M. Salmanzadeh, G. Ahmadi, S. Jafari, LES and RANS Model Based on LBM for Simulation of Indoor Airflow and Particle Dispersion and Deposition, Building and Environment, 102, 2016, 1-12.
[38] Amiri Delouei, A., Nazari, M., Kayhani, M. H., Succi, S., Non-Newtonian unconfined flow and heat transfer over a heated cylinder using the direct-forcing immersed boundary–thermal lattice Boltzmann method, Physical Review E, 89, 2014, 053312.
[39] Amiri Delouei, A., Nazari, M., Kayhani, M. H., Succi, S., Immersed Boundary – Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Methods for Non-Newtonian Flows over a Heated Cylinder: A Comparative Study, Communications in Computational Physics, 18, 2015, 489-515.
[40] Amiri Delouei, A., Nazari, M., Kayhani, M. H., Kang, S.K., Succi, S., Non-Newtonian Particulate Flow Simulation: A Direct-Forcing Immersed Boundary- Lattice Boltzmann Approach, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 447, 2016, 1-20.
[41] Amiri Delouei, A., Nazari, M., Kayhani, M. H., Ahmadi, G., A Non-Newtonian Direct Numerical Study for Stationary and Moving Objects with Various Shapes: An Immersed Boundary -Lattice Boltzmann Approach, Journal of Aerosol Science, 93, 2016, 45–62.
[42] Tian, L., Ahmadi, G., Particle deposition in turbulent duct flows comparisons of different model predictions, Journal of Aerosol Science, 38, 2007, 377-397.
[43] Li, A., Ahmadi, G., Dispersion and deposition of spherical particles form point sources in a turbulent channel flow, Aerosol Science and Technology, 16, 1992, 209-226.
[44] Hardalupas, Y., Taylor, A., On the measurement of particle concentration near a stagnation point, Experiments in Fluids, 8, 1998, 113–118.
[45] Zhu, J., Rudoff, R., Bachalo, E., Bachalo, W.N., umber density and mass flux measurements using the phase Doppler particle analyzer in reacting and non-reacting swirling flows. In: AIAA, Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 1993.
[46] Salmanzadeh, M., Zahedi, Gh., Ahmadi, G., Marr, D.R., Glauser, M., Computational modeling of effects of thermal plume adjacent to the body on the indoor airflow and particle transport, Journal of Aerosol Science, 53, 2012, 29–39.
[47] Posner, J.D., Buchanan, C.R., Dunn-Rankin, D., Measurement and prediction of indoor air flow in a model room, Energy Building, 35, 2003, 515-526.
[48] Tian, Z.F., Tu, J.Y., Yeoh, G.H., Yuen, R.K.K., On the numerical study of contaminant particle concentration in indoor air flow, Building and Environment, 41, 2006, 1504–1514.