Cyclic and Monotonic Behavior of Strengthened and Unstrengthened Square Reinforced Concrete Columns

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Institute of Structural Mechanics (ISM), Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Marienstraße 15, D-99423 Weimar, GERMANY

2 Departement de Genie Civil, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Mohamed BOUDIAF, USTO-MB, BP 1505 El M Naouer, 31000 Oran, ALGERIE

3 Teknik Sipil, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Gegerkalong Hilir Ds.Ciwaruga, Bandung, 40012, INDONESIA


The use of composite materials is an effective technique to enhance the capacity of reinforced concrete columns subjected to the seismic loading due to their high tensile strength. In this paper, numerical models are developed in order to predict the experimental behavior of square reinforced concrete columns strengthened by glass fiber reinforced polymer and steel bars and unstrengthened column under cyclic and monotonic loadings, respectively. Two columns are modeled in the present work. The first one corresponds to the column without strengthening subjected to lateral monotonic loading, and the second one corresponds to the column strengthened by glass fiber reinforced polymer and steel bars subjected to lateral cyclic loading. Comparison of the numerical modeling and the experimental laboratory test results are performed and discussed. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental force-displacement responses is obtained. Moreover, improvements in the strength of the reinforced concrete column subjected to the cyclic loading along with the comparison of the behavior of the strengthened column with the unstrengthened reference column are discussed. The results show a good improvement in the load carrying capacity and ductility of the column. The main objectives of this numerical modeling are to contribute the comprehension of the monotonic and cyclic behavior of the square reinforced concrete columns and to compare the numerical results with the experimental ones.


[1] Kerfriden, P, Schmidt, K.M., Rabczuk, T, Bordas, S.P.A., Statistical extraction of process zones and representative subspaces in fracture of random composites, International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering, 11(3), 2012, 253-287.
[2] Ben, S., Zhao, J., Zhang, Y., Qin, Y., Rabczuk, T., The interface strength and debonding for composite structures: Review and recent developments, Composite Structures, 129, 2015, 8-26.
[3] Ghasemi, H., Kerfriden, P., Bordas, S.P.A., Muthu, J., Zi, G., Rabczuk, T., Interfacial shear stress optimization in sandwich beams with polymeric core using non-uniform distribution of reinforcing ingredients, Composite Structures, 120, 2015, 221-230.
[4] Diyaroglu, C., Oterkus, E., Madenci, E., Rabczuk, T., Siddiq, A., Peridynamic modeling of composite laminates under explosive loading, Composite Structures, 144, 2016, 14-23.
[5] Sas, G., Dăescu, A.C., Popescu, C., Nagy‐György, T., Numerical optimization of strengthening disturbed regions of dapped‐end beams using NSM and EBR CFRP, Composites Part B: Engineering, 67, 2014, 381-390.
[6] Nagy-György, T., Sas, G., Dăescu, A.C., Barros, J.A.O., Valeriu Stoian. Experimental and numerical assessment of the effectiveness of FRP-based strengthening configurations for dapped-end RC beams, Engineering Structures, 44, 2012, 291-303.
[7] Mauludin, L.M. Oucif, C. The effects of interfacial strength on fractured microcapsule, Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 2018, 1-11, doi: 10.1007/s11709-018-0469-3.
[8] Mauludin, L.M., Oucif, C. Interaction between matrix crack and circular capsule under uniaxial tension in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete, Underground Space, 3(3), 2018, 181-189.
[9] Youssf, O., ElGawady, M., Mills, J.E., Static cyclic behaviour of FRP-confined crumb rubber concrete columns, Engineering Structures, 113, 2016, 371–387.
[10] Tarabia, A.M., Albakry, H.F., Strengthening of RC columns by steel angles and strips, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53, 2014, 615–626.
[11] Dăescu, A.C., Nagy‐György, T., Experimental study on the strengthening procedures for reinforced concrete columns, 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering (SSE ’09), Timisoara, ISBN 978‐960‐474‐080‐2, 2009.
[12] Oucif, C., Voyiadjis, G.Z., Kattan, P.I., Rabczuk, T. Nonlinear Superhealing and Contribution to the Design of a New Strengthening Theory, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 144(7), 2018, 1-17.
[13] Arash, B., Park, H.S., Rabczuk, T., Tensile fracture behavior of short carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites: A coarse-grained model, Composite Structures, 134, 2015, 981-988.
[14] Arash, B., Park, H.S, Rabczuk, T., Coarse-grained model of the J-integral of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites, Carbon, 96, 2016, 1084-1092.
[15] Arash, B., Park, H.S, Rabczuk, T., Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer nanocomposites: A coarse-grained model, Composites Part B: Engineering, 80, 2015, 92-100.
[16] Hasan, Q.F., Tekeli, H., Demir, F., NSM Rebar and CFRP laminate strengthening for RC columns subjected to cyclic loading, Construction and Building Materials, 119, 2016, 21-30.
[17] Ozbakkaloglu, T., A novel FRP-dual-grade concrete-steel composite column system, Thin-Walled Structures, 96, 2015, 295-306.
[18] Kumar, V., Patel, P.V., Strengthening of axially loaded circular concrete columns using stainless steel wire mesh (SSWM) - Experimental investigations, Construction and Building Materials, 124, 2016, 186-198.
[19] Rabczuk, T., Belytschko, T., A three dimensional large deformation meshfree method for arbitrary evolving cracks, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 196(29-30), 2007, 2777-2799.
[20] Oucif, C., Mauludin, L.M. Numerical modeling of high velocity impact applied to reinforced concrete panel, Underground Space, 2018, 1-9, doi: 10.1016/j.undsp.2018.04.007.
[21] Hadi, B., Joaquim, A.O.B., Fatmir, M., Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with Hybrid Composite Plates (HCP) technique: Experimental research and analytical model, Engineering Structures, 125, 2016, 504-520.
[22] Zi, G., Rabczuk, T., Wall, W.A., Extended Meshfree Methods without Branch Enrichment for Cohesive Cracks, Computational Mechanics, 40(2), 2007, 367-382.
[23] Rabczuk, T., Bordas, S., Zi, G., A three-dimensional meshfree method for continuous multiple crack initiation, nucleation and propagation in statics and dynamics, Computational Mechanics, 40(3), 2007, 473-495.
[24] Peng, G., Xianglin, G., Ayman, S.M., Flexural behavior of preloaded reinforced concrete beams strengthened by prestressed CFRP laminates, Composite Structures, 157, 2016, 33-50.
[25] Rabczuk, T., Belytschko, T., Cracking particles: a simplified meshfree method for arbitrary evolving cracks, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 61(13), 2004, 2316-2343.
[26] Rabczuk, T., Zi, G., A meshfree method based on the local partition of unity for cohesive cracks, Computational Mechanics, 39(6), 2007, 743-760.
[27] Rabczuk, T., Zi, G., Numerical Fracture analysis of prestressed concrete beams, International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 2(2), 2008, 153-160.
[28] Plotzitza, A., Rabczuk, T., Eibl, J., Techniques for Numerical Simulations of Concrete Slabs for Demolishing by Blasting, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 133(5), 2007.
[29] Rabczuk, T., Belytschko, T., Application of particle methods to static fracture of reinforced concrete structures, International Journal of Fracture, 137, 2006, 19-49.
[30] Rabczuk, T., Akkermann, J., Eibl, J., A numerical model for reinforced concrete structures, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 42, 2005, 1327-1354.
[31] Rabczuk, T., Eibl, J., Numerical analysis of prestressed concrete beams using a coupled element free Galerkin/finite element approach, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 41, 2004, 1061-1080.
[32] Rabczuk, T., Xiao, S.P., Sauer, M., Coupling of meshfree methods with finite elements: Basic concepts and test results, Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering, 22(10), 2006, 1031-1065.
[33] Rabczuk, T., Zi, G., Bordas, S., Nguyen-Xuan, H., A simple and robust three dimensional cracking-particle method without enrichment, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 199(37-40), 2010, 2437-2455.
[34] Rabczuk, T., Eibl, J., Modeling dynamic failure of concrete with meshfree particle methods, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 32(11), 2006, 1878-1897.
[35] Rabczuk, T., Zi, G., Bordas, S., Nguyen-Xuan, H., A geometrically non-linear three dimensional cohesive crack method for reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 75(16), 2008, 4740-4758.
[36] Bordas, S., Rabczuk, T., Zi, G., Three-dimensional crack initiation, propagation, branching and junction in non-linear materials by extrinsic discontinuous enrichment of meshfree methods without asymptotic enrichment, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 75(5), 2008, 943-960.
[37] Ouzaa, K., Oucif, C. Numerical model for prediction of corrosion of steel reinforcements in reinforced concrete structures, Underground Space, 2018, 1-6, doi: 10.1016/j.undsp.2018.06.002.
[38] Rahai, A., Akbarpour, H., Experimental investigation on rectangular RC columns strengthened with CFRP composites under axial load and biaxial bending, Composite Structures, 108, 2014, 538-546.
[39] Yuan, F., Wu, Y.F., Effect of load cycling on plastic hinge length in RC columns, Engineering Structures, 147, 2017, 90-102.
[40] Hany, N.F., Hantouche, E.G., Harajli, M.H., Finite element modeling of FRP-confined concrete using modified concrete damaged plasticity, Engineering Structures, 125, 2016, 1-14.
[41] Realfonzo, R., Napoli, A., Results from cyclic tests on high aspect ratio RC columns strengthened with FRP systems, Construction and Building Materials, 37, 2012, 606-620.
[42] Sun, Z., Wu, G., Zhang, J., Zeng, Y., Xiao, W., Experimental study on concrete columns reinforced by hybrid steel-fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars under horizontal cyclic loading, Construction and Building Materials, 130, 2017, 202-211.
[43] Ma, G., Li, H., Acoustic emission monitoring and damage assessment of FRP strengthened reinforced concrete columns under cyclic loading, Construction and Building Materials, 144, 2017, 86-98.
[44] DĂESCU, A.C., Reabilitarea elementelor de construcţie utilizând material compozite polimerice, PhD Thesis, Timisoara, 2011.
[45] HIT-RE 500 injection technique for concrete.
[46] Červenka, V., Červenka, J., User’s Manual for ATENA 2D, Prague, 2010.
[47] Bazant, Z.P., Fracture in Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, Northwestern University. Mechanics of Geomateriats, Chapter 13, 1985.
[48] Weihe, S., Kroplin, B., Borst, R.D.E., Classification of smeared crack models based on material and structural properties, International Journal of Solids Structures, 35, 1998, 1289-1308.
[49] Yu,W., Inelastic modeling of reinforcing bars and blind analysis of the benchmark tests on beam-column joints under cyclic loading, MSc Dissertation, Pavia, 2006.