Neville, A.M., Brooks, J.J., Concrete Technology (2nd edition), Pearson Education, Canada, 2010.
 Lynn, A.C., Moehle, J.P., Mahin, S.A., Holmes, W.T., Seismic evaluation of existing reinforced concrete building columns, Earthquake Spectra, 12(4), 1996, 715-739.
 Moehle, J.P., Mahin, S.A., Observations on the behavior of reinforced concrete buildings during earthquakes, ACI SP-127: Earthquake-Resistant Concrete Structures Inelastic Response and Design, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, USA, 1991.
 Aschheim, M., Gülkan, P., Sezen, H., Bruneau, M., Elnashai, A.S., Halling, M., Love, J., Rahnama, M., Performance of buildings, Earthquake Spectra, 16(S1), 2000, 237-279.
 Sezen, H., Whittaker, A.S., Elwood, K.J., Mosalam, K.M., Performance of reinforced concrete buildings during the August 17, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake, and seismic design and construction practice in Turkey, Engineering Structures, 25(1), 2003, 103-114.
 Lukkunaprasit, P., Ruangrassamee, A., Boonyatee, T., Chintanapakdee, C., Jankaew, K., Thanasisathit, N., Chandrangsu, T., Performance of structures in the Mw 6.1 Mae Lao Earthquake in Thailand on May 5, 2014 and implications for future construction, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 20(2), 2015, 219-242.
 Lynn, A.C., Seismic evaluation of existing reinforced concrete building columns, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA., 2001.
 Elwood, K.J., Modelling failures in existing reinforced concrete columns, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 31(5), 2004, 846-859.
 Sezen, H., Moehle, J.P., Seismic test of concrete columns with light transverse reinforcement, ACI Structural Journal, 103(6), 2006, 842-849.
 Lodhi, M.S., Sezen, H., Estimation of monotonic behavior of reinforced concrete columns considering shear-flexure-axial load interaction, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 41(15), 2012, 2159-2175.
 Vecchio, C.D., Kwon, O.S., Sarno, L.D., Prota, A., Accuracy of nonlinear static procedures for the seismic assessment of shear critical structures, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(10), 2015, 1581-1600.
 Zimos, D.F., Modelling the post-peak response of existing reinforced concrete frame structures subjected to seismic loading, Ph.D. Thesis, Computer Science and Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering Structures, University of London, England, 2017.
 Sae-Long, W., Limkatanyu, S., Prachasaree, W., Horpibulsuk, S., Panedpojaman, P., Nonlinear frame element with shear-flexure interaction for seismic analysis of non-ductile reinforced concrete columns, International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 13, Article number: 32, 2019.
 Ozcebe, G., Saatcioglu, M., Hysteretic shear model for reinforced concrete members, Journal of Structural Engineering, 115(1), 1989, 132-148.
 Sezen, H., Seismic behavior and modeling of reinforced concrete building columns, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA., 2002.
 Lee, J.Y., Watanabe, F., Predicting the longitudinal axial strain in the plastic hinge regions of reinforced concrete beams subjected to reversed cyclic loading, Engineering Structures, 25(7), 2003, 927-939.
 Biskinis, D., Roupakias, G.K., Fardis, M.N., Degradation of shear strength of reinforced concrete members with inelastic cyclic displacement, ACI Structural Journal, 101(6), 2004, 773-783.
 Priestley, M.J.N., Seible, F., Verma, R., Xiao, Y., Seismic shear strength of reinforced concrete columns, Structural Systems Research Project Report No. SSRP 93/06, University of California, San Diego, USA, 1993.
 Sezen, H., Moehle, J.P., Shear strength model for lightly reinforced concrete columns, Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(11), 2004, 1692-1703.
 ICC, International building code, International Code Council, Country Club Hills, Illinois, USA., 2012.
 Ceresa, P., Petrini, L., Pinho, R., Flexure-shear fiber beam-column elements for modeling frame structures under seismic loading: State of the art, Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 11(supplement 1), 2007, 46-88.
 Ceresa, P., Petrini, L., Pinho, R., A fiber flexure-shear model for cyclic nonlinear behavior of RC structural elements, Research Report ROSE-2008/07. IUSS Press: Pavia, Italy, 2008.
 Giberson, M.F., The response of nonlinear multi-story structures subjected to earthquake excitation, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA, 1967.
 Roufaiel, M.S.L., Meyer, C., Analytical modeling of hysteretic behavior of R/C frames, Journal of Structural Engineering, 113(3), 1987, 429-444.
 Thom, C., The effects of inelastic shear on the seismic response of structures, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1983.
 Pincheira, J.A., Dotiwala, F.S., D’Souza, J.T., Seismic analysis of older reinforced concrete columns, Earthquake Spectra, 15(2), 1999, 245-272.
 Sezen, H., Chowdhury, T., Hysteretic model for reinforced concrete columns including the effect of shear and axial load failure, Journal of Structural Engineering, 135(2), 2009, 139-146.
 Soleimani, D., Reinforced concrete ductile frames under earthquake loadings with stiffness degradation, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA., 1978.
 Lee, C., Filippou, F., Efficient beam-column element with variable inelastic end zones, Journal of Structural Engineering, 135(11), 2009, 1310-1319.
 Mullapudi, T.R., Ayoub, A., Modeling of the seismic behavior of shear-critical reinforced concrete columns, Engineering Structures, 32(11), 2010, 3601-3615.
 Guner, S., Vecchio, F.J., Simplified method for nonlinear dynamic analysis of shear-critical frames, ACI Structural Journal, 109(5), 2012, 727-738.
 Mergos, P.E., Kappos, A.J., A gradual spread inelasticity model for R/C beam-columns, accounting for flexure, shear and anchorage slip, Engineering Structures, 44, 2012, 94-106.
 Mergos, P.E., Kappos, A.J., A distributed shear and flexural flexibility model with shear-flexure interaction for R/C members subjected to seismic loading, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 37(12), 2008, 1349-1370.
 Zimos, D.K., Mergos, P.E., Kappos, A.J., Modelling of R/C members accounting for shear failure localisation: Hysteretic shear model, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 47(8), 2018, 1722-1741.
 Zeris, C.A., Mahin, S.A., Behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected to uniaxial excitation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 117(9), 1991, 2657-2673.
 Spacone, E., Filippou, F.C., Taucer, F.F., Fibre beam-column model for nonlinear analysis of R/C frames. Part I: formulation, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 25(7), 1996, 711-725.
 Spacone, E., Limkatanyu, S., Responses of reinforced concrete members including bond-slip effects, ACI Structural Journal, 97(6), 2000, 831-839.
 Cosenza, E., Manfredi, G., Verderame, G.M., A fibre model for push-over analysis of underdesigned reinforced concrete frames, Computers & Structures, 2006, 84(13-14), 904-916.
 Marini, A., Spacone, E., Analysis of reinforced concrete elements including shear effects, ACI Structural Journal, 103(5), 2006, 645-655.
 Ceresa, P., Petrini, L., Pinho, R., Sousa, R., A fibre flexure-shear model for seismic analysis of RC-framed structures, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 38(5), 2009, 565-586.
 Palermo, D., Vecchio, F.J., Compression field modeling of reinforced concrete subjected to reversed loading: Formulation, ACI Structural Journal, 100(5), 2003, 616-625.
 Hsu, T.T.C., Zhu, R.R.H., Softened membrane model for reinforced concrete elements in shear, ACI Structural Journal, 99(4), 2002, 460-469.
 Feng, D.C., Wu, G., Sun, Z.Y., Xu, J.G., A flexure-shear Timoshenko fiber beam element based on softened damage-plasticity model, Engineering Structures, 140, 2017, 483-497.
 Wu, J.Y., Li, J., Faria, R., An energy release rate-based plastic-damage model for concrete, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 43(3-4), 2006, 583-612.
 Feng, D.C., Wu, G., Ning, C.L., A regularized force-based Timoshenko fiber element including flexure-shear interaction for cyclic analysis of RC structures, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 160, 2019, 59-74.
 Limkatanyu, S., Spacone, E., Reinforced concrete frame element with bond interfaces. I: Displacement-based, force-based, and mixed formulations, Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(3), 2002, 346-355.
 Jafari, V., Abyaneh, M.A., Vahdani, S.H., Rahimian, M., Improved displacement-field approximation for geometrical nonlinear flexibility-based planar curved element in state space, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, 37(4), 2009, 475-502.
 Zendaoui, A., Kadid, A., Yahiaoui, D., Comparison of different numerical models of RC elements for predicting the seismic performance of structures, International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 10(4), 2016, 461-478.
 Tonti, E., The reason for analogies between physical theories, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 1(1), 1976, 37-50.
 Taylor, R.L., FEAP: A finite element analysis program, User manual: version 7.3. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 2000.
 Onate, E., Structural analysis with the finite element method volume 2: beams, plates and shells, Springer, Netherlands, 2013.
 Kent, D.C., Park, R., Flexural members with confined concrete, ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, 97(7), 1971, 1969-1990.
 Menegotto, M., Pinto, P.E., Method of analysis for cyclically loaded reinforced concrete plane frames including changes in geometry and nonelastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending, Proceeding of IABSE Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well-Defined Repeated Loads, Lisbon, 1973, 15-22.
 Spacone, E., Filippou, F.C., Taucer, F.F., Fibre beam-column model for nonlinear analysis of R/C frames. Part II: Applications, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 25(7), 1996, 727-742.
 Limkatanyu, S., Spacone, E., Reinforced concrete frame element with bond interfaces. II: State determinations and numerical validation, Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(3), 2002, 356-364.
 Park, R., Paulay, T., Reinforced concrete structures, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1975.
 Ma, S.M., Bertero, V.V., Popov, E.P., Experimental and analytical studies on hysteretic behavior of RC rectangular and T-beam, Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. UCB/EERC-76/02, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 1976.
 Oesterle, R.G., Fiorato, A.E., Aristizabal-Ochoa, J.D., Corley, W., Hysteretic response of reinforced concrete structural walls, In: Proceedings of ACISP-63: reinforced concrete structures subjected to wind and earthquake forces, Detroit, USA, 1980.
 Ramirez, H., Jirsa, J.O., Effect of axial load on shear behavior of short RC columns under cyclic lateral deformations, PMFSEL REPORT No. 80-1, Phil M. Ferguson Structural Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, USA., 1980.
 Sezen, H., Shear deformation model for reinforced concrete columns, Structural Engineering & Mechanics, 28(1), 2008, 39-52.
 Li, Z.X., Gao, Y., Zhao, Q., A 3D flexure-shear fiber element for modeling the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete columns, Engineering Structures, 117, 2016, 372-383.
 Filippou, F.C., D’Ambrisi, A., Issa, A., Nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete subassemblages, Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. UCB/EERC-92/08, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 1992.
 Martino, R., Nonlinear pushover analysis of reinforced concrete structures, Master Thesis, Department of Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, 1999.