An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamic ‎Performance of Vibrating Wind Turbine Blade with Frequency-‎Domain Method

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle, Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom

2 Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle, Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, United Kingdom

3 Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, United Kingdom‎


A highly efficient nonlinear frequency-domain solution method is proposed and employed to investigate the aerodynamic and aeromechanical performances of an oscillating wind turbine blade aerofoil in this study. Extensive validations of a frequency-domain method against an experiment as well as a typical time-domain solution method are provided in this paper. An experiment is also designed and conducted to measure pressure distributions over an aerofoil as well as to validate the numerical model. Unsteady pressure distributions and aeroelasticity parameters of the oscillating NACA0012 aerofoil are computed at various angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. Results indicate that the difference of unsteady pressure distributions between the two surfaces of the aerofoil becomes larger as the angle of attack is increased, whereas the flow separation on the suction surface is reduced by raising the Reynolds number. The turbulent flow develops in the downstream region due to the laminar vortex shedding at lower Reynolds numbers. It is also revealed that the Reynolds number has an impact on the aeroelasticity, and the aerodynamic damping value is larger at higher Reynolds numbers. The comparison between the frequency-domain method and the time-domain method shows that the frequency-domain method is not only accurate but also computationally very efficient as the computation time is reduced by 90%.


Main Subjects

[1] Hau, E., Vibration Characteristics, Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics, pp. 233-268, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.
[2] Rezaei, M. M., Behzad, M., Haddadpour, H., and Moradi, H., Aeroelastic analysis of a rotating wind turbine blade using a geometrically exact formulation, Nonlinear Dynamics, 89(4), 2017, 2367-2392.
[3] Chaviaropoulos, P. K., Politis, E. S., Lekou, D. J., Sørensen, N. N., Hansen, M. H., Bulder, B. H., Winkelaar, D., Lindenburg, C., Saravanos, D. A., Philippidis, T. P., Galiotis, C., Hansen, M. O. L., and Kossivas, T., Enhancing the damping of wind turbine rotor blades, the DAMPBLADE project, Wind Energy, 9(1‐2), 2006, 163-177.
[4] Ramdenee, D., Ilinca, A., and Minea, I. S., Aeroelasticity of Wind Turbines Blades Using Numerical Simulation, Advances in Wind Power, 2012, 87-120.
[5] Hansen, M. H., Improved Modal Dynamics of Wind Turbines to Avoid Stall-induced Vibrations, Wind Energy, 6(2), 2003, 179-195.
[6] Hansen, M. H., Aeroelastic stability analysis of wind turbines using an eigenvalue approach, Wind Energy, 7(2), 2004, 133-143.
[7] Hansen, M. H., Aeroelastic eigenvalue analysis of three-bladed wind turbines, 2003,
[8] Thomsen, K., Petersen, J. T., Nim, E., Øye, S., and Petersen, B., A Method for Determination of Damping for Edgewise Blade Vibrations, Wind Energy, 3(4), 2000, 233-246.
[9] Patil, S., Zori, L., Galpin, P., Morales, J., and Godin, P., Investigation of Time/Frequency Domain CFD Methods to Predict Turbomachinery Blade Aerodynamic Damping.
[10] Lobitz, D. W., Aeroelastic stability predictions for a MW-sized blade, Wind Energy, 7(3), 2004, 211-224.
[11] Lobitz, D. W., Parameter Sensitivities Affecting the Flutter Speed of a MW-Sized Blade, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 127(4), 2005, 538-543.
[12] Dezvareh, R., Evaluation of turbulence on the dynamics of monopile offshore wind turbine under the wave and wind excitations, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 5(4), 2019, 704-716.
[13] Pierella, F., Krogstad, P.-Å., and Sætran, L., Blind Test 2 calculations for two in-line model wind turbines where the downstream turbine operates at various rotational speeds, Renewable Energy, 70, 2014, 62-77.
[14] Krogstad, P.-Å., Sætran, L., and Adaramola, M. S., “Blind Test 3” calculations of the performance and wake development behind two in-line and offset model wind turbines, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 52, 2015, 65-80.
[15] Wang, L., Liu, X., and Kolios, A., State of the art in the aeroelasticity of wind turbine blades: Aeroelastic modelling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 64, 2016, 195-210.
[16] Kaya, M. N., Kose, F., Ingham, D., Ma, L., and Pourkashanian, M., Aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine with forward and backward swept blades, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 176, 2018, 166-173.
[17] Lee, H. M., and Kwon, O. J., Performance improvement of horizontal axis wind turbines by aerodynamic shape optimization including aeroealstic deformation, Renewable Energy, 147, 2020, 2128-2140.
[18] Liu, Y., Xiao, Q., Incecik, A., Peyrard, C., and Wan, D., Establishing a fully coupled CFD analysis tool for floating offshore wind turbines, Renewable Energy, 112, 2017, 280-301.
[19] Dai, L., Zhou, Q., Zhang, Y., Yao, S., Kang, S., and Wang, X., Analysis of wind turbine blades aeroelastic performance under yaw conditions, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 171, 2017, 273-287.
[20] Wang, L., Quant, R., and Kolios, A., Fluid structure interaction modelling of horizontal-axis wind turbine blades based on CFD and FEA, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 158, 2016, 11-25.
[21] Dose, B., Rahimi, H., Herráez, I., Stoevesandt, B., and Peinke, J., Fluid-structure coupled computations of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine by means of CFD, Renewable Energy, 129, 2018, 591-605.
[22] Dose, B., Rahimi, H., Stoevesandt, B., and Peinke, J., Fluid-structure coupled investigations of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine for two downwind configurations, Renewable Energy, 146, 2020, 1113-1123.
[23] Yu, D. O., and Kwon, O. J., Predicting wind turbine blade loads and aeroelastic response using a coupled CFD–CSD method, Renewable Energy, 70, 2014, 184-196.
[24] Wang, L., and Sweetman, B., Multibody dynamics of floating wind turbines with large-amplitude motion, Applied Ocean Research, 43, 2013, 1-10.
[25] Hall, K. C., Thomas, J. P., and Clark, W. S., Computation of Unsteady Nonlinear Flows in Cascades Using a Harmonic Balance Technique, AIAA Journal, 40(5), 2002, 879-886.
[26] He, L., Harmonic Solution of Unsteady Flow Around Blades with Separation, AIAA Journal, 46(6), 2008, 1299-1307.
[27] Rahmati, M. T., He, L., and Wells, R. G., Interface Treatment for Harmonic Solution in Multi-Row Aeromechanic Analysis, Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, 2010, 1253-1261.
[28] Rahmati, M., He, L., and Li, Y., Multi-row interference effects on blade aeromechanics in compressor and turbine stages, Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines, 2012.
[29] Rahmati, M. T., He, L., and Li, Y. S., The Blade Profile Orientations Effects on the Aeromechanics of Multirow Turbomachines, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 138(6), 2015, 062606.
[30] Rahmati, M. T., He, L., Wang, D. X., Li, Y. S., Wells, R. G., and Krishnababu, S. K., Nonlinear Time and Frequency Domain Methods for Multirow Aeromechanical Analysis, Journal of Turbomachinery, 136(4), 2013, 041010.
[31] Nakhchi, M. E., Naung, S. W., and Rahmati, M., High-resolution direct numerical simulations of flow structure and aerodynamic performance of wind turbine airfoil at wide range of Reynolds numbers, Energy, 225, 2021, 120261.
[32] Nakhchi, M. E., Win Naung, S., and Rahmati, M., DNS of secondary flows over oscillating low-pressure turbine using spectral/hp element method, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 86, 2020, 108684.
[33] Naung, S. W., Rahmati, M., and Farokhi, H., Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Flutter Instability of the Blade on the Unsteady Flow in a Modern Low-Pressure Turbine.
[34] Win Naung, S., Rahmati, M., and Farokhi, H., Direct Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Transient Flow and Blade Structure in a Modern Low-Pressure Turbine, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 192, 2021, 106104.
[35] Win Naung, S., Rahmati, M., and Farokhi, H., Aeromechanical Analysis of Wind Turbines Using Non-Linear Harmonic Method.
[36] Win Naung, S., Rahmati, M., and Farokhi, H., Aerodynamic Analysis of a Wind Turbine With Elevated Inflow Turbulence and Wake Using Harmonic Method.
[37] Naung, S. W., Rahmati, M., and Farokhi, H., Nonlinear frequency domain solution method for aerodynamic and aeromechanical analysis of wind turbines, Renewable Energy, 167, 2021, 66-81.
[38] Wacks, D. H., Nakhchi, M. E., and Rahmati, M., Forced Response of a Low-Pressure Turbine Blade using‎ Spectral/hp Element Method: Direct Numerical Simulation‎, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 7(1), 2021, 135-147.
[39] Roy, A., Mallik, A. K., and Sarma, T. P., A Study of Model Separation Flow Behavior at High Angles of Attack Aerodynamics, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 4(4), 2018, 318-330.
[40] Naung, S. W., Nakhchi, M. E., and Rahmati, M., High-fidelity CFD simulations of two wind turbines in arrays using nonlinear frequency domain solution method, Renewable Energy, 174, 2021, 984-1005.