Magnetized Bi-convective Nanofluid Flow and Entropy ‎Production Using Temperature-sensitive Base Fluid Properties:‎ A Unique Approach

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Mathematics, IIT Madras, India

2 Faculty of Engineering, Kuwait College of Science and Technology, Doha, Kuwait‎


The flow mechanism and entropy production of a bi-convective, magnetized, radiative nano-liquid flow for an inverted cone considering temperature-sensitive water properties is accomplished numerically. The functional nanomaterial comprises Copper, Alumina in the base liquid, water. The mathematical equations representing the system's physical characteristics are solved numerically by adopting a robust numerical approach for indulgencing non-similar solutions to understand numerous parameters' effect on temperature, velocity, salient gradients, and entropy production. The investigation summarizes that buoyancy force and injection heighten the velocity, and suction, particle percentage, radiation elevate the heat transfer. At the same time, the radiation and Brinkman number enhance the entropy generation. It is also detected from this investigation that the magnetic effect shows dual behaviour in entropy generation.


Main Subjects

Publisher’s Note Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

[1] Wang, C.Y., Boundary layers on rotating cones, discs and axisymmetric surfaces with a concentrated heat source, Acta Mechanica, 81(3), 1990, 245-251.
[2] Yih, K.A., Mixed convection about a cone in a porous medium: the entire regime, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 26(7), 1999, 1041-1050.
[3] Ravindran, R., Roy, S., Momoniat, E., Effects of injection (suction) on a steady mixed convection boundary layer flow over a vertical cone, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 19(3/4), 2009, 432 - 444.
[4] Daskalakis, J.E., Mixed free and forced convection in the incompressible boundary layer along a rotating vertical cylinder with fluid injection, International Journal of Energy Research, 17(8), 1993, 689-695.
[5] Ravindran, R. and Ganapathirao, M., Non-uniform slot suction/injection into mixed convection boundary layer flow over vertical cone, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 34(11), 2013, 1327-1338.
[6] Chamkha, A.J. and Rashad, A.M., Natural convection from a vertical permeable cone in a nanofluid saturated porous media for uniform heat and nanoparticles volume fraction fluxes, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 22(8), 2012, 1073- 1085.
[7] Nadeem, S., Theoretical Investigation of MHD nanofluid flow over a rotating cone: an optimal solutions, Information Sciences Letters, 3(2), 2014, 55-62.
[8] Nadeem, S. and Saleem, S., Analytical study of third grade fluid over a rotating vertical cone in the presence of nanoparticles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 85, 2015, 1041-1048.
[9] Ghalambaz, M., Behseresht, A., Behseresht, J. and Chamkha, A., Effects of nanoparticles diameter and concentration on natural convection of the Al2O3–water nanofluids considering variable thermal conductivity around a vertical cone in porous media, Advanced Powder Technology, 26(1), 2015, 224-235.
[10] Reddy, J.V.R., Sugunamma, V., Sandeep, N. and Chakravarthula, S.K., Chemically reacting MHD dusty nanofluid flow over a vertical cone with non-uniform heat source/sink, Walailak Journal of Science and Technology (WJST), 14(2), 2017, 141-156.
[11] Sandeep, N. and Reddy, M.G., Heat transfer of nonlinear radiative magnetohydrodynamic Cu-water nanofluid flow over two different geometries, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 225, 2017, 87-94.
[12] Prabhavathi, B., Reddy, P.S. and Vijaya, R.B., Heat and mass transfer enhancement of SWCNTs and MWCNTs based Maxwell nanofluid flow over a vertical cone with slip effects, Powder Technology, 340, 2018, 253-263.
[13] Hanif, H., Khan, I. and Shafie, S., Heat transfer exaggeration and entropy analysis in magneto-hybrid nanofluid flow over a vertical cone: a numerical study, Journal of Thermal Analysis & Calorimetry, 141(5), 2020, 2001-2017.
[14] Zeeshan, A., Ellahi, R. and Hassan, M., Magnetohydrodynamic flow of water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids with natural convection through a porous medium, The European Physical Journal Plus, 129(12), 2014, 1-10.
[15] Reddy, P.S. and Chamkha, A.J., Influence of size, shape, type of nanoparticles, type and temperature of the base fluid on natural convection MHD of nanofluids, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 55(1), 2016, 331-341.
[16] Reddy, M.G. and Sandeep, N., Computational modelling and analysis of heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past the upper part of a paraboloid of revolution, The European Physical Journal Plus, 132(5), 2017, 1-18.
[17] Dogonchi, A.S., Asghar, Z. and Waqas, M., CVFEM simulation for Fe3O4-H2O nanofluid in an annulus between two triangular enclosures subjected to magnetic field and thermal radiation, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 112, 2020, 104449.
[18] Dogonchi, A.S., Waqas, M., Seyyedi, S.M., Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M. and Ganji, D.D., A modified Fourier approach for analysis of nanofluid heat generation within a semi-circular enclosure subjected to MFD viscosity, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 111, 2020, 104430.
[19] Sadeghi, M.S., Tayebi, T., Dogonchi, A.S., Nayak, M.K. and Waqas, M., Analysis of thermal behavior of magnetic buoyancy-driven flow in ferrofluid–filled wavy enclosure furnished with two circular cylinders, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 120, 2021, 104951.
[20] Reddy, P.S. and Chamkha, A., Heat and mass transfer analysis in natural convection flow of nanofluid over a vertical cone with chemical reaction, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 27(1), 2017, 2-22.
[21] Raju, C.S.K., Sandeep, N. and Sugunamma, V., Unsteady magneto-nanofluid flow caused by a rotating cone with temperature dependent viscosity: a surgical implant application, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 222, 2016, 1183-1191.
[22] Noor, N.F.M., Abbasbandy, S. and Hashim, I., Heat and mass transfer of thermophoretic MHD flow over an inclined radiate isothermal permeable surface in the presence of heat source/sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55(7-8), 2012, 2122-2128.
[23] Dogonchi, A.S., Waqas, M., Gulzar, M.M., Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M., Seyyedi, S.M. and Ganji, D.D., Simulation of Fe3O4-H2O nanoliquid in a triangular enclosure subjected to Cattaneo–Christov theory of heat conduction, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 29(11), 2019, 4430-4444.
[24] Turkyilmazoglu, M., Exact analytical solutions for heat and mass transfer of MHD slip flow in nanofluids, Chemical Engineering Science, 84, 2012, 182-187.
[25] Mondal, H., Mishra, S., Kundu, P.K. and Sibanda, P., Entropy generation of variable viscosity and thermal radiation on magneto nanofluid flow with dusty fluid, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 6(1), 2020, 171-182.
[26] Sheikholeslami, M., Bandpy, M.G., Ellahi, R., Hassan, M. and Soleimani, S., Effects of MHD on Cu–water nanofluid flow and heat transfer by means of CVFEM, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 349, 2014, 188-200.
[27] Narender, G., Govardhan, K. and Sreedhar Sarma, G., MHD Casson nanofluid past a stretching sheet with the effects of viscous dissipation, chemical reaction and heat source/sink, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2019, doi: 10.22055/JACM.2019.14804.
[28] Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M., Dogonchi, A.S., Seyyedi, S.M. and Sharifpur, M., Magneto-fluid dynamic and second law analysis in a hot porous cavity filled by nanofluid and nano-encapsulated phase change material suspension with different layout of cooling channels, Journal of Energy Storage, 31, 2020, 101720.
[29] Mondal, S., Dogonchi, A.S., Tripathi, N., Waqas, M., Seyyedi, S.M., Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M. and Ganji, D.D., A theoretical nanofluid analysis exhibiting hydromagnetics characteristics employing CVFEM, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 42(1), 2020, 1-12.
[30] Chamkha, A.J., Abbasbandy, S., Rashad, A.M. and Vajravelu, K., Radiation effects on mixed convection about a cone embedded in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid, Meccanica, 48(2), 2013, 275-285.
[31] Haroun, N.A., Mondal, S. and Sibanda, P., Hydromagnetic nanofluids flow through a porous medium with thermal radiation, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation using the spectral relaxation method, International Journal of Computational Methods, 16(06), 2019, 1840020.
[32] Rashid, M., Khan, M.I., Hayat, T., Khan, M.I. and Alsaedi, A., Entropy generation in flow of ferromagnetic liquid with nonlinear radiation and slip condition, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 276, 2019, 441-452.
[33] Pordanjani, A.H., Aghakhani, S., Karimipour, A., Afrand, M. and Goodarzi, M., Investigation of free convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid flow inside a cavity affected by magnetic field and thermal radiation, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 137(3), 2019, 997-1019.
[34] Mahian, O., Kianifar, A., Sahin, A.Z. and Wongwises, S., Entropy generation during Al2O3/water nanofluid flow in a solar collector: Effects of tube roughness, nanoparticle size, and different thermophysical models, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 78, 2014, 64-75
[35] Khan, M.I., Qayyum, S., Hayat, T., Waqas, M., Khan, M.I. and Alsaedi, A., Entropy generation minimization and binary chemical reaction with Arrhenius activation energy in MHD radiative flow of nanomaterial, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 259, 2018, 274-283.
[36] Khan, M.W.A., Khan, M.I., Hayat, T. and Alsaedi, A., Entropy generation minimization (EGM) of nanofluid flow by a thin moving needle with nonlinear thermal radiation, Physica B: Condensed Matter, 534, 2018, 113-119.
[37] Ibáñez, G., López, A., Pantoja, J. and Moreira, J., Entropy generation analysis of a nanofluid flow in MHD porous microchannel with hydrodynamic slip and thermal radiation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 100, 2016, 89-97.
[38] Thumma, T., Mishra, S., Bég, O., ADM Solution for Cu-CuO-Water Viscoplastic nanofluid ‎transient slip flow from a porous stretching sheet with entropy generation, convective wall temperature and radiative effects, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 7(3), 2021, 1291-1305.
[39] Shukla, N., Rana, P., Kuharat, S., Anwar Bég, O., Non-similar radiative bioconvection nanofluid flow under ‎oblique magnetic field with entropy generation‎, ‎Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 2021, doi: 10.22055/jacm.2020.33580.2250.
[40] Al-Rashed, A.A., Kolsi, L., Hussein, A.K., Hassen, W., Aichouni, M. and Borjini, M.N., Numerical study of three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in a cubical cavity with partially active vertical walls, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 10, 2017, 100-110.
[41] Hussein, A.K., Lioua, K., Chand, R., Sivasankaran, S., Nikbakhti, R., Li, D., Naceur, B.M. and Habib, B.A., Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with an isothermal bottom wall, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 55(2), 2016, 741-755.
[42] Lioua, K., Oztop, H.F., Borjini, M.N. and Al-Salem, K., Second law analysis in a three dimensional lid-driven cavity, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38(10), 2011, 1376-1383.
[43] Lide, D.R., (Ed.) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., 1990.
[44] Das, S.K., Putra, N., Thiesen, P. and Roetzel, W., Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 125(4), 2003, 567-574.
[45] Saikrishnan, P., Roy, S., Non-uniform slot injection (suction) into water boundary layers over (i) a cylinder and (ii) a sphere, International Journal of Engineering Science, 41(12), 2003, 1351-1365.
[46] Das, S.K., Choi, S.U., Yu, W. and Pradeep, T., Nanofluids: science and technology, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2007.
[47] Brinkman, H.C., The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solutions, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 20(4), 1952, 571-571.
[48] Bejan, A., Convection Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2013.
[49] Ellahi, R., Hassan, M. and Zeeshan, A., Shape effects of nanosize particles in Cu-H2O nanofluid on entropy generation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 81, 2015, 449-456.
[50] Arpaci, V.S., Radiative entropy production-lost heat into entropy, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 30(10), 1987, 2115-2123.
[51] Woods, L.C., Thermodynamics of Fluid Systems, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1975.
[52] Bellman, R.E., Kalaba, R.E., Quasilinearization and Non-Linear Boundary Value Problems, American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, 1965.
[53] Varga, R.S., Matrix Iterative Analysis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2000.
[54] Abu-Nada, E., Masoud, Z., Hijazi, A., Natural convection heat transfer enhancement in horizontal concentric annuli using nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 35(5), 2008, 657-665.