Heat Transfer Improvement in a Thermal Energy Storage System ‎using Auxiliary Fluid Instead of Nano-PCM in an Inclined ‎Enclosure: A Comparative Study

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Independent Researcher, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, P. O. Box 27272, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

4 Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Lebanese American University (LAU), Byblos, Lebanon

5 U.S.-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Energy (USPCAS-E), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

6 Centre for Infrastructure Engineering, School of Engineering, Design and Built Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia

7 Faculty of Engineering, Kuwait College of Science and Technology, Doha District, 35004 Kuwait


Modern thermal energy storage (TES) systems rely laboriously on finding a low-cost method to improve heat transfer. In the present analysis, adding CuO nanoparticles and tilting the enclosure simultaneously is compared with a novel approach that employed water as a supplemental fluid to improve the melting process using the density difference between PCM and supplemental fluid. Oleic acid is selected as an immiscible PCM in water, which causes PCM and auxiliary fluid utterly separate at the end of the melting process to be usable in more additional TES cycles. By placing water as a heavier material directly on top of oleic acid, the melted oleic acid is replaced by water at the bottom of the enclosure when it melts because water has a heavier density than oleic acid. At first, adding 1% and 2% of CuO nanoparticles in an enclosure with different inclinations of 0°, 45°, and 90° is studied to identify the energy storage rate. Continuity, momentum, and energy equations are used to formulate a mathematical model of the TES system. In the next step, the melting process of the combined system is analyzed to determine the energy storage rate of the combined system compared to the system, including CuO nanoparticles in the inclined enclosure. Comparing the combined system with the optimal case of nano-PCM in the inclined enclosure, it was found that the energy storage rate in the system using auxiliary fluid is 1.396 times higher.


Main Subjects

Publisher’s Note Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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