Study of Hybrid Composite Joints with Thin-ply-reinforced Adherends under High-rate and Impact Loadings

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Instituto de Ciência e Inovação Em Engenharia Mecânica e Engenharia Industrial (INEGI), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

2 Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Faculdade de Engenharia (FEUP), Universidade Do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal


This research aims to examine the tensile strength of a hybrid composite laminate reinforced by thin-plies when used as an adherend in bonded single lap joints subjected to high-rate and impact loading. Two different composites, namely Texipreg HS 160 T700 and NTPT-TP415, are employed as the conventional and thin-ply composites, respectively. The study considers three configurations: a conventional composite, a thin-ply, and a hybrid single lap joint. Numerical models of the configurations are developed to provide insight into failure mechanisms and the initiation of damage. The results indicate a significant increase in tensile strength for the hybrid joints over the conventional and thin-ply joints, due to the mitigation of stress concentrations. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of hybrid laminates for improving the performance of composite joints under high-rate loading and impact conditions.


Main Subjects

Publisher’s Note Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

[1] Karatas, M.A. and Gökkaya, H., A review on machinability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials, Defence Technology, 14(4), 2018, 318-326.
[2] Sahu, P. and Gupta, M.K., A review on the properties of natural fibres and its bio-composites: Effect of alkali treatment, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 234(1), 2020, 198-217.
[3] Zhou, M., Gu, W., Wang, G., Zheng, J., Pei, C., Fan, F. and Ji, G., Sustainable wood-based composites for microwave absorption and electromagnetic interference shielding, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 8(46), 2020, 24267-24283.
[4] Budzik, M.K., Wolfahrt, M., Reis, P., Kozłowski, M., Sena-Cruz, J., Papadakis, L., Nasr Saleh, M., Machalicka, K.V., Teixeira de Freitas, S. and Vassilopoulos, A.P., Testing mechanical performance of adhesively bonded composite joints in engineering applications: An overview, The Journal of Adhesion, 98(14), 2022, 2133-2209.
[5] Nassiraei, H. and Rezadoost, P., Static capacity of tubular X-joints reinforced with fiber reinforced polymer subjected to compressive load, Engineering Structures, 236, 2021, 112041.
[6] Nassiraei, H. and Rezadoost, P., Local joint flexibility of tubular T/Y-joints retrofitted with GFRP under in-plane bending moment, Marine Structures, 77, 2021, 102936.
[7] Liu, B., Zhang, Q., Li, X., Guo, Y., Zhang, Z., Yang, H. and Yuan, Y., Potential advantage of thin‐ply on the composite bolster of a bogie for a high‐speed electric multiple unit, Polymer Composites, 42(7), 2021, 3404-3417.
[8] Shishesaz, M., Ghamarian, A.H. and Moradi, S., Stress distribution in laminated composite tubular joints with damaged adhesive layer under torsion, The Journal of Adhesion, 99(6), 2023, 930-971.
[9] Zou, G.P. and Taheri, F., Stress analysis of adhesively bonded sandwich pipe joints subjected to torsional loading, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 43(20), 2006, 5953-5968.
[10] Shishesaz, M. and Tehrani, S., The effects of circumferential voids or debonds on stress distribution in tubular adhesive joints under torsion, The Journal of Adhesion, 96, 2020, 1396-1430.
[11] Shishesaz, M. and Tehrani, S., Interfacial shear stress distribution in the adhesively bonded tubular joints under tension with a circumferential void or debond, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 34(11), 2020, 1172-1205.
[12] Zhou, X., Li, J., Qu, C., Bu, W., Liu, Z., Fan, Y. and Bao, G., Bending behavior of hybrid sandwich composite structures containing 3D printed PLA lattice cores and magnesium alloy face sheets, The Journal of Adhesion, 98(11), 2022, 1713-1731.
[13] Guillamet, G., Turon, A., Costa, J., Renart, J., Linde, P. and Mayugo, J.A., Damage occurrence at edges of non-crimp-fabric thin-ply laminates under off-axis uniaxial loading, Composites Science and Technology, 98, 2014, 44-50.
[14] Tserpes, K., Barroso-Caro, A., Carraro, P.A., Beber, V.C., Floros, I., Gamon, W., Kozłowski, M., Santandrea, F., Shahverdi, M., Skejic, D. and Bedon, C., A review on failure theories and simulation models for adhesive joints, The Journal of Adhesion, 98(12), 2022, 1855-1915.
[15] Esmaeel, R.A. and Taheri, F., Stress analysis of tubular adhesive joints with delaminated adherend, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 23(13-14), 2009, 1827-1844.
[16] Esmaeel, R.A. and Taheri, F., Influence of adherend’s delamination on the response of single lap and socket tubular adhesively bonded joints subjected to torsion, Composite Structures, 93(7), 2011, 1765-1774.
[17] Sam-Daliri, O., Farahani, M. and Araei, A., Condition monitoring of crack extension in the reinforced adhesive joint by carbon nanotubes, Welding Technology Review, 91(12), 2019, 7-15.
[18] Ghabezi, P. and Farahani, M., Trapezoidal traction–separation laws in mode II fracture in nano-composite and nano-adhesive joints, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 37(11), 2018, 780-794.
[19] Ramezani, F., Simões, B.D., Carbas, R.J., Marques, E.A. and da Silva, L.F.M., Developments in Laminate Modification of Adhesively Bonded Composite Joints, Materials, 16(2), 2023, 568.
[20] Akhavan-Safar, A., Ramezani, F., Delzendehrooy, F., Ayatollahi, M.R. and Da Silva, L.F.M., A review on bi-adhesive joints: Benefits and challenges, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 114, 2022, 103098.
[21] Qin, Z., Yang, K., Wang, J., Zhang, L., Huang, J., Peng, H. and Xu, J., The effects of geometrical dimensions on the failure of composite-to-composite adhesively bonded joints, The Journal of Adhesion, 97(11), 2021, 1024-1051.
[22] Ramezani, F., Nunes, P.D.P., Carbas, R.J.C., Marques, E.A.S. and da Silva, L.F.M., The joint strength of hybrid composite joints reinforced with different laminates materials, Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, 5, 2022, 100103.
[23] Simões, B.D., Nunes, P.D., Ramezani, F., Carbas, R.J., Marques, E.A. and da Silva, L.F.M., Experimental and numerical study of thermal residual stresses on multimaterial adherends in single-lap joints, Materials, 15(23), 2022, 8541.
[24] Shang, X., Marques, E.A.S., Machado, J.J.M., Carbas, R.J.C., Jiang, D. and Da Silva, L.F.M., A strategy to reduce delamination of adhesive joints with composite substrates, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 233(3), 2019, 521-530.
[25] Potter, K.D., Guild, F.J., Harvey, H.J., Wisnom, M.R. and Adams, R.D., Understanding and control of adhesive crack propagation in bonded joints between carbon fibre composite adherends I, Experimental, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 21(6), 2001, 435-443.
[26] Mouritz, A.P., Review of z-pinned composite laminates, Composites Part A, 38(12), 2007, 2383-2397.
[27] Ko, F.K. and Wan, L.Y., Textile structural composites: from 3-D to 1-D fiber architecture. The structural integrity of carbon fiber composites: Fifty years of progress and achievement of the science, development, and applications, Springer, 2017.
[28] Sawyer, J.W., Effect of stitching on the strength of bonded composite single lap joints, AIAA Journal, 23(11), 1985, 1744-1748.
[29] Hader-Kregl, L., Wallner, G.M., Kralovec, C. and Eyßell, C., Effect of inter-plies on the short beam shear delamination of steel/composite hybrid laminates, The Journal of Adhesion, 95(12), 2019, 1088-1100.
[30] Verpoest, I., Wevers, M., De Meester, P. and Declercq, P., 2.5 D-fabrics and 3D-fabrics for delamination resistant composite laminates and sandwich structures, Sampe Journal, 25(3), 1989, 51-56.
[31] Dransfield, K., Baillie, C. and Mai, Y.W., Improving the delamination resistance of CFRP by stitching—a review, Composites Science and Technology, 50(3), 1994, 305-317.
[32] Sihn, S., Kim, R.Y., Kawabe, K. and Tsai, S.W., Experimental studies of thin-ply laminated composites, Composites Science and Technology, 67(6), 2007, 996-1008.
[33] Amacher, R., Cugnoni, J., Botsis, J., Sorensen, L., Smith, W. and Dransfeld, C., Thin ply composites: Experimental characterization and modeling of size-effects, Composites Science and Technology, 101, 2014, 121-132.
[34] Arteiro, A., Catalanotti, G., Xavier, J., Linde, P. and Camanho, P.P., A strategy to improve the structural performance of non-crimp fabric thin-ply laminates, Composite Structures, 188, 2018, 438-449.
[35] Kötter, B., Karsten, J., Körbelin, J. and Fiedler, B., CFRP thin-ply fibre metal laminates: Influences of ply thickness and metal layers on open hole tension and compression properties, Materials, 13(4), 2020, 910.
[36] Wisnom, M.R., Khan, B. and Hallett, S.R., Size effects in unnotched tensile strength of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy composites, Composite Structures, 84(1), 2008, 21-28.
[37] Kim, R.Y. and Soni, S.R., Experimental and analytical studies on the onset of delamination in laminated composites, Journal of Composite Materials, 18(1), 1984, 70-80.
[38] Huang, C., He, M., He, Y., Xiao, J., Zhang, J., Ju, S. and Jiang, D., Exploration relation between interlaminar shear properties of thin-ply laminates under short-beam bending and meso-structures, Journal of Composite Materials, 52(17), 2018, 2375-2386.
[39] Kupski, J., Zarouchas, D. and de Freitas, S.T., Thin-plies in adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymers, Composites Part B: Engineering, 184, 2020, 107627.
[40] Camanho, P.P., Dávila, C.G., Pinho, S.T., Iannucci, L. and Robinson, P., Prediction of in situ strengths and matrix cracking in composites under transverse tension and in-plane shear, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 37(2), 2006, 165-176.
[41] Ramezani, F., Carbas, R.J., Marques, E.A. and da Silva, L.F.M., Study of Hybrid Composite Joints with Thin-Ply-Reinforced Adherends, Materials, 16(11), 2023, 4002.
[42] Ramezani, F., Carbas, R.J., Marques, E.A., Ferreira, A.M. and da Silva, L.F.M., A study of the fracture mechanisms of hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates reinforced by thin‐ply, Polymer Composites, 44(3), 2023, 1672-1683.
[43] Morgado, M.A., Carbas, R.J.C., Dos Santos, D.G. and Da Silva, L.F.M., Strength of CFRP joints reinforced with adhesive layers, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 97, 2020, 102475.
[44] Campilho, R.D., De Moura, M.F.S.F. and Domingues, J.J.M.S., Modelling single and double-lap repairs on composite materials, Composites Science and Technology, 65(13), 2005, 1948-1958.
[45] Machado, J.J.M., Marques, E.A.S., Campilho, R.D.S.G. and da Silva, L.F.M., Mode I fracture toughness of CFRP as a function of temperature and strain rate, Journal of Composite Materials, 51(23), 2017, 3315-3326.
[46] Morgado, M.A., Carbas, R.J.C., Marques, E.A.S. and Da Silva, L.F.M., Reinforcement of CFRP single lap joints using metal laminates, Composite Structures, 230, 2019, 111492.
[47] Ramezani, F., Carbas, R., Marques, E.A.S., Ferreira, A.M. and da Silva, L.F.M., Study on out-of-plane tensile strength of angle-plied reinforced hybrid CFRP laminates using thin-ply, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 2023, 1-14.
[48] Antunes, D.P.C., Lopes, A.M., Moreira da Silva, C.M.S., da Silva, L.F.M., Nunes, P.D.P., Marques, E.A.S. and Carbas, R. J. C., Development of a Drop Weight Machine for Adhesive Joint Testing, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 49(3), 2021, 1651–1673.
[49] Ghabezi, P. and Farahani, M., A cohesive model with a multi-stage softening behavior to predict fracture in nano composite joints, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 219, 2019, 106611.