Selection of Optimal Planetary Transmission for Light Electric Vehicle Main Gearbox

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Standardization, Certification and Metrology, Institute of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Satbayev University, Satpaev Street 22, Almaty, KZ-050000, Kazakhstan

2 Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, Rijeka, HR-51000, Croatia

3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, Niš, 18000, Serbia

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin), Strasse des 17. Juni 135, Berlin, D-10623, Germany


This paper deals with the selection of optimal layout variants of planetary transmissions designed for operation as Light Electric Vehicle main gearboxes. The required transmission ratio was calculated, and the optimal two-carrier gear train with two connecting and three external shafts selected. A computer program was used for structural synthesis and to determine the required basic parameters of the component gear trains. The ring gear reference diameter was used to rank the layout variants according to size, with the smallest variants also ranked according to the calculated efficiency ratio. Finally, an optimal variant of the planetary gear train for light electric vehicle application is proposed. The procedure proposed in this paper may be expanded to other applications.


Main Subjects

Publisher’s Note Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

[1] Ehsani. M., Gao, Y.M., Emadi, A., Modern electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles: fundamentals, theory, and design, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2018.
[2] Olabi, A. et al., Battery electric vehicles: Progress, power electronic converters, strength (S), weakness (W), opportunity (O), and threats (T), International Journal of Thermofluids, 16, 2022, 100212.
[3] Ravindra Jape, S., Thosar, A., Comparison of electric motors for electric vehicle application, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 6(9), 2017, 12–17.
[4] Wu, J., et al., Efficiency comparison of electric vehicles powertrains with dual motor and single motor input, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 128, 2018, 569–585.
[5] Zhang, W., Yang, J., Zhang, W., Influence of a new type of two-speed planetary gear automatic transmission on the performance of battery electric vehicles, Energies, 15(11), 2022, 4162.
[6] He, B., et al., Performance comparison of pure electric vehicles with two-speed transmission and adaptive gear shifting strategy design, Energies, 16(7), 2023, 3007.
[7] Mantriota G., Reina, G., Dual-motor planetary transmission to improve efficiency in electric vehicles, Machines, 9(3), 2021, 58.
[8] Bang, Y., Multi-speed transmission mechanism using a compound planetary gear set and brakes, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 20(4), 2019, 739–748.
[9] Fischer, S., Kocsis Szürke, S., Detection process of energy loss in electric railway vehicles, Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 21(1), 2023, 81-99.
[10] Naunheimer, H. et al., Automotive Transmissions: Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application, 2nd ed., Springer, Heidelberg, 2010.
[11] Han, J.O., Shin, J.W., Kim, J.C., Oh, S.H., Design 2-speed transmission for compact electric vehicle using dual brake system, Applied Sciences, 9, 2019, 1793.
[12] Patel, T., Dubey, A., Bhaskara Rao, L., Design and analysis of an epicyclic gearbox for an electric drivetrain, International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(3), 2019, 6834–6842.
[13] Tomovic, A., Damjanovic, M., Tomovic, R., Jovanovic, J., The annulling of the sudden appearance of an unbalance in rotary machines by using active magnetic bearings, Engineering Review, 43(2), 2023, 117-134.
[14] Miltenovic, A. et al., Wear load capacity of crossed helical gears, Facta Universitatis-Series Mechanical Engineering, 22(1), 2024, 125-138.
[15] Vrcan, Ž., Stefanovic-Marinovic, J., Tica, M., Troha, S., Research into the Properties of Selected Single Speed Two-Carrier ‎Planetary Gear Trains, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 8(2), 2022, 699-709.
[16] Abdali, S.H., Esmail, E.L., The structural synthesis of non-fractionated, three-degree-of-freedom planetary gear mechanisms, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 10(1), 2024, 205-223.                          
[17] Tica, M., Vrcan, Ž., Troha, S., Marinkovic, D., Reversible planetary gearsets controlled by two brakes, for internal combustion railway vehicle transmission applications, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 20(1), 2023, 95-108.
[18] Karaivanov, D., Theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of the structure of the coupled two-carrier planetary gear trains on its basic parameters, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia, 2000.
[19] Karaivanov, D., Petrova, A., Ilchovska, S., Konstantinov, M., Analysis of complex planetary change-gears through the torque method, Machines. Technologies. Materials., 10(6), 2016, 38–42.
[20] Arnaudov, K., Karaivanov, D., Engineering analysis of the coupled two-carrier planetary gearing through the lever analogy, Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Transmissions, Chongqing, China, 2001.
[21] Troha, S., Analysis of a planetary change gear train’s variants, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka, 2011.
[22] Karaivanov, D.P., Troha, S., Optimal selection of the structural scheme of compound two-carrier planetary gear trains and their parameters, in Recent advances in gearing: scientific theory and applications, Radzevich, S.P. (Ed.), Springer, Cham, 2022.
[23] Arnaudow, K., Karaivanov, D., Systematik, Eigenschaften und Möglichkeiten von zusammengesetzten mehrsteg-Planetengetrieben, Antriebstechnik, 5, 2005, 58–65.
[24] Arnaudov, K., Karaivanov, D., Torque method for analysis of compound planetary gear trains, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, London, 2017.
[25] Rodrigues, C., Design of a high-speed transmission for an electric vehicle, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, Porto, 2018.
[26] Larminie, J., Lowry, J., Electric Vehicle Technology Explained, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2003.
[27] Hashemnia, N., Asaei, B., Comparative study of using different electric motors in the electric vehicles, 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines, Vilamoura, Portugal, 1–5, 2008.
[28] Leitman, S., Brant, B., Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, McGraw Hill Professional, New York, 2013.
[29] Arnaudov, K., Karaivanov, D., Alternative method for analysis of complex compound planetary gear trains: Essence and possibilities, International Conference on Power Transmissions, Sinaia, Romania, 3-20, 2012.
[30] Arnaudov, K.B., Karaivanov D.P., Planetary gear trains, Taylor & Francis, New York, 2019.
[31] Karaivanov, D., Bekzhanov S., Saktaganov B., Torque method investigation of Wolfrom gear trains, Engineering Review, 43(1), 2023, 126-137.
[32] Troha, S., Milutinovic, M., Vrcan, Ž., Characteristics and Capabilities of Two-Speed, Two-Carrier Planetary Gearboxes, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, 2024.
[33] Vrcan, Ž., Ivanov, V., Alexandrov, A., Isametova, M., Size and efficiency based comparison of kinematically equivalent two-carrier planetary gear trains, Engineering Review, 42(3), 2022, 17-31.
[34] Mackic, T. et al., Analysis of Power Losses in Constrained Cycloid Drive, Technical Gazette, 30(4), 2023, 1104-1111.