Thermal Performance Study of Plate-finned Vapor Chamber Heat Sink

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt


This study focuses on improving the thermal characteristics of a plate-finned heat sink (PFHS) by incorporating a vapor chamber (VC) through experimental investigation. The research examines the influence of various parameters, including Reynolds number (Re), heat input, filling ratio (FR), and operating vacuum pressure, on the thermal performance of the VC. The results demonstrate that the utilization of a VC leads to a significantly more uniform temperature distribution along the base of the PFHS and low overall temperatures. Conversely, in the absence of a VC, the PFHS exhibits a non-uniform temperature distribution, with a bell-shaped profile and concentrated high temperatures at the center at the same operating conditions. The results indicate that an operating vacuum pressure of 1kPa produces the most favorable performance. Additionally, a filling ratio of 50% proves to be optimal across the range of heat inputs from 10 to 90 W.


Main Subjects

Publisher’s Note Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

[1] Wu, G., Luo, Y., Bai, P., Wang, H., Cai, R., Tang, Y., Chen, X., Zhou, G., Modeling and experimental analysis of an internally cooled vapor chamber, Energy Conversion and Management, 235, 2021, 114017.
[2] Liu, T., Yan, W., Yang, X., Wang, Sh., Improving the thermal performance of thin vapor chamber by optimizing screen mesh wick structure, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 36, 2022, 101535.
[3] Bulut, M., Kandlikar, S.G., Sozbir, N., A Review of Vapor Chambers, Heat Transfer Engineering, 40, 2019, 1551-1573.
[4] Dhaiban, H.T., Hussein, M.A., The Optimal Design of Heat Sinks: A Review, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 6(4), 2020, 1030-1043.
[5] Mahmoudi J., CFD Analyses and Comparison of the Effect of Industrial Heat Sinks in Subsea Control System (SCS), Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 9(1), 2023, 95–112.
[6] Hassan, H., Harmand, S., A Three-Dimensional Study of Electronic Component Cooling Using a Flat Heat Pipe, Heat Transfer Engineering, 34, 2013, 596–607.
[7] Lia, B., Huang, K., Yan, Y., Lic, Y., Twahaa, S., Zhua, J., Heat transfer enhancement of a modularised thermoelectric power generator for passenger vehicles, Applied Energy, 205, 2017, 868–879.
[8] Khodabandeh. E., Rozati, S.A., Joshaghani, M., Akbari, O.A., Akbari, S., Toghraie, D., Thermal performance improvement in water nanofluid/GNP–SDBS in novel design of double-layer microchannel heat sink with sinusoidal cavities and rectangular ribs, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 136, 2019, 1333–1345.
[9] Toghraie, D., Mashayekhi, R., Arasteh, H., Sheykhi, S., Niknejadi, M., Chamkha, A.J., Two-phase investigation of water-Al2O3 nanofluid in a micro concentric annulus under non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 30(4), 2020, 1795-1814.
[10] Arasteh, H., Mashayekhi R., Ghaneifar, M., Toghraie, D., Afrand, M., Heat transfer enhancement in a counter-flow sinusoidal parallel-plate heat exchanger partially filled with porous media using metal foam in the channels’ divergent sections, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 141, 2020, 1669–1685.
[11] Arasteh, H., Mashayekhi, R., Goodarzi, M., Motaharpour, S.H., Dahari, M., Toghraie, D., Heat and fluid flow analysis of metal foam embedded in a doublelayered sinusoidal heat sink under local thermal non-equilibrium condition using nanofluid, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 138, 2019, 1461–1476.
[12] Li, Y., Hu, H., Li, C., Zhang, Y., Yang, S., Pan, M., Experimental investigation on enhanced flow and heat transfer performance of micro-jet impingement vapor chamber for high power electronics, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 173, 2022, 107380.
[13] Wang, R.-T., Wang, J.-C., Chang, T.-L., Experimental analysis for thermal performance of a vapor chamber applied to high-performance servers, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 19, 2011, 353-360.
[14] Zeng, J., Zhang, S., Chen, G., Lin, L., Sun, Y., Chuai, L., Yuan, W., Experimental investigation on thermal performance of aluminum vapor chamber using micro-grooved wick with reentrant cavity array, Applied Thermal Engineering, 130, 2018, 185–194.
[15] Naphon, P., Wongwises, S., Wiriyasart, S., Application of two-phase vapor chamber technique for hard disk drive cooling of PCs, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 40, 2013, 32–35.
[16] Zhou, W., Li, Y., Chen, Z., Deng, L., Gan, Y., Ultra-thin flattened heat pipe with a novel band-shape spiral woven mesh wick for cooling smartphones, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 146, 2020, 118792.
[17] Huang, H.-S., Chiang, Y.-C., Huang, C.-K., Chen, S.-L., Experimental Investigation of Vapor Chamber Module Applied to High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes, Experimental Heat Transfer, 22, 2009, 26–38.
[18] Wang, J.-C., Thermal Investigations on LED vapor chamber-based plates, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38, 2011, 1206 -1212.
[19] Lu, Z., Huang, P.F.B., Henzen, A., Coehoorn, R., Liao, H., Zhou, G.F., Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of three-dimensional vapor chamber for LED automotive headlamps, Applied Thermal Engineering, 157, 2019, 113478.
[20] Jouhara, H., Milko, J., Danielewicz, J., Sayegh, M.A., Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M., Ramos, J.B., Lester, S.P., The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material, Energy, 108, 2016, 148–154.
[21] Wang, Z.-Y., Diao, Y.-H., Zhao, Y.-H., Wei, X.-Q., Chen, C.-Q., Wang, T.-Y., Liang, L., Compound parabolic concentrator solar air collection-storage system based on micro-heat pipe arrays, Solar Energy, 207, 2020, 743–758.
[22] Tetuko, A.P., Shabani, B., Andrews, J., Thermal coupling of PEM fuel cell and metal hydride hydrogen storage using heat pipes, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41, 2016, 4264–4277.
[23] Huang, B., Jian, Q.F., Luo, L.Z., Bai, X.Y., Research on the in-plane temperature distribution in a PEMFC stack integrated with flat-plate heat pipe under different startup strategies and inclination angles, Applied Thermal Engineering, 179, 2020, 115741.
[24] Li, Y.Y., Chang, G.F., Xu, Y.M., Zhang, J.N., Zhao, W., A Review of MHP Technology and Its Research Status in Cooling of Li-Ion Power Battery and PEMFC, Energy & Fuel, 34, 2020, 13335–13349.
[25] Srimuang, W., Limkaisang, V., A correlation to predict the heat flux on the air-side of a vapor chamber with overturn-U flattened tubes, Heat and Mass Transfer, 52, 2016, 1683–1692.
[26] Wiriyasart, S., Naphon, P., Thermal performance enhancement of vapor chamber by coating mini-channel heat sink with porous sintering media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 126, 2018, 116–122.
[27] Wang, Y., Vafai, K., An experimental investigation of the thermal performance of an asymmetrical flat plate heat pipe, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 43, 2000, 2657-2668.
[28] Go, J.S., Quantitative thermal performance evaluation of a cost-effective vapor chamber heat sink containing a metal-etched micro wick structure for advanced microprocessor cooling, Sensor and Actuators A: Physical, 121, 2005, 549-556.
[29] Hsieh, S.S., Lee, R.Y., Shyu, J.C., Chen, S.W., Thermal performance of flat vapor chamber heat spreader, Energy Conversion and Management, 49, 2008, 1774–1784.
[30] Koito, Y., Imura, H., Mochizuki, M., Saito, Y., Torii, S., Numerical analysis and experimental verification on thermal fluid phenomena in a vapor chamber, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26, 2006, 1669–76.
[31] Ming, Z., Zhongliang, L., Guoyuan, M., Shuiyuan, C., The experimental study on flat plate heat pipe of magnetic working fluid, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 33, 2009, 1100–1105.
[32] Ming, Z., Zhongliang, L., Guoyuan, M., The experimental and numerical investigation of a grooved vapor chamber, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, 2009, 422–430.
[33] Wang, J.-C., Wang, R.-T., A novel formula for effective thermal conductivity of vapor chamber, Experimental Techniques, 35, 2011, 35–40.
[34] Attia, A. A. A., El-Assal, B. T. A., Experimental investigation of vapor chamber with different working fluids at different charge ratios, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 3, 2012, 289–297.
[35] Peng, H., Li, J., Ling, X., Study on heat transfer performance of an aluminum flat plate heat pipe with fins in vapor chamber, Energy Conversion and Management, 74, 2013, 44-50.
[36] Naphon, P., Wiriyasart, S., Wongwises, S., Thermal cooling enhancement techniques for electronic components, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 61, 2015, 140–145.
[37] Liu, Y., Han, X., Shen, C., Yao, F., Zhang, M., Experimental Study on the Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Vapor Chamber, Energies, 12, 2019, 11.
[38] Ladekar, C., Pise, A., Nukulwar, M., Lingayat, A., Comparative analysis of integrated heat sink vapor chamber with conventional heat sink for LED cooling, Materials Today: Proceedings, 72, 2023, 1136–1142.
[39] Cengle, Y., Cimbala, J.M., Turner, R.H., Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Science, Fifth edition, MC Grow Hill, New York, 2003.
[40] Moffat, R.J., Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 1988, 3-17.
[41] Al-Rahman, M.A., Ibrahim, S.A.A., Ahmed, S., Elrifai, M.E., Thermo-hydraulic Characteristic Study of The Flat Plat-Finned Heat Sink, Journal of Al-Azhar University Engineering Sector, 2023, (Accepted for publication).